字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント - Do you think it's more correct to say that pandemics may increase with climate change, or will increase with climate change? - I feel comfortable saying will increase with climate change. - Hello, I'm Auri Jackson, connecting with you from my bedroom because of coronavirus. This is actually not a desk, it's a $20 dresser from Ikea. I live in Los Angeles, where myself and other Angelenos are currently sheltering in place and are working on our screenplays at home rather than in cafes. In this video, I'm gonna be explaining to you why pandemics may increase in a warming world and interview an expert about it. I'm also going to be telling some mediocre jokes because this (beeps) is scary as (beeps), (heavy metal music) and humor is my coping mechanism. See, I know (upbeat music) that your grandparents and parents have been talking to you just so much about climate change that I thought it might be refreshing for you to hear a young person tackle the issue and explore how it relates to COVID-19. - Hi, I'm Alanna Shaikh and I specialize in global health and particular in strengthening global health systems and what happens to those systems when they face a severe shock. I think there's an interesting parallel between our response to COVID-19 and our response to climate change. I think in a lot of ways, the response to COVID-19 has been like climate change at high speed. First you get the experts saying, "There's a massive problem coming." And governments and regular people saying, "Don't be silly, you're overreacting. "We're not understanding the data "or choosing to ignore the data "because it's too frightening." And then you see it start affecting people that are more distant to you. And then suddenly it's in your backyard and everything's on fire. - In case you missed it, our world has warmed by about one degree Celsius or 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit from preindustrial levels. Since the industrial revolution, we've been burning unprecedented amounts of fossil fuels that release greenhouse gasses like CO2, into our atmosphere and trap heat from the sun, causing our average global temperature to rise. So basically, (heavy metal music) it's like we live in a house where none of the windows open and we don't have A/C and we decided it was a good idea to feed everyone beans and burn all our (beeps) furniture. Now, a one degree difference (inquisitive music) doesn't seem like a lot, but even half a degree of warming can mean more deadly heatwaves, increased water scarcity, entire island nations disappearing, more climate refugees trying to find homes, more floods, droughts, fires, hurricanes, and diseases, but it's fine, right? (carefree music) Let's just watch "Love Is Blind" on Netflix. (record scratches) Okay, so let's get into the reasons why pandemics may increase in a warming world. (inquisitive music) There may be an increase in epidemics when there is a loss of natural habitat due to climate change, which could cause humans and animals to compete in closer proximity for resources, potentially spreading disease. This does sound like a bummer, however, I would love to watch Gwyneth Paltrow wrestle a green juice from the jaws of a mountain lion, but that's an unlikely outcome of climate change, unfortunately. - So one of the big challenges around climate change and infectious disease and zoonotic diseases in particular is that extreme weather events and other kinds of climate alterations also change animals' lives and animals' habits. On the one hand, we have people forcing themselves into animal territory that they've never been in before and on the other hand, they see animals being disrupted by a confusing, incomprehensible climate then start blundering back into human environments that they were previously avoiding. And those kinds of contacts between animals and humans are what bring us zoonotic diseases and what could well be part of our next pandemic. - In the 2014 Ebola epidemic, climate change contributed to the destruction of natural habitats for animals like bats in West Africa, forcing the bats into closer proximity to humans. Some hypothesize that this is how the Ebola outbreak began in Guinea. (inquisitive music) (bubble popping) - Part of the body's immune response is our ability to kill off pathogens like bacteria and viruses that cause disease by becoming feverish and creating an environment that is inhospitable for pathogens to survive. Or that will make you wanna take off all your clothes, as Nelly would say. However, as the planet warms, pathogens evolve to become more resistant to high temperatures. For example, on a very hot summer day, many bacteria might die. But those that do survive are the stronger and more adaptable bacteria and go on to reproduce, and pass on their heat resistant genetics. Theoretically one day as external temperatures continue to rise, our bodies' ability to kill off bacteria with the natural heat of a fever will become less effective, just like our ability to resist recreating embarrassing TikTok dances has. Often times, disease is carried by animals before it spreads to humans. However, animals can have differing body temperatures at which they can sustain or fight off pathogens, which are not always equal to ours. For example, it is believed that COVID-19 may have spread from humans to bats. Bats run a lot hotter than humans. Their body temperature is commonly as hot as 105 degrees Fahrenheit. So they can carry pathogens that don't hurt them, but that can be hugely detrimental to humans. Theoretically as a the planet warms, bats and Joe Exotic will still be protected by their high body temperatures but we will be far more vulnerable. Just kidding about Joe Exotic, but I don't know about the Carole Baskin. (inquisitive music) (bubble popping) As the world warms, we could see the spread of tropical diseases like Yellow and Dengue Fever in places that they haven't historically been, like in North America. To be clear, COVID-19 is not a tropical disease or a thing to mock, by touching a bunch of microphones. - A warming planet expands the range that certain pathogens are comfortable in. Right now there's a category of diseases called Tropical Diseases. And as more of the world falls into a tropical zone, those Tropical Diseases will spread. There are places in the world right now that you don't get malaria and we'll start seeing malaria there. - According to Maria Di Aguasar at the Yale School of Public Health, global warming caused by humans is likely to increase infection rates of mosquito borne diseases like malaria, Dengue Fever, and West Nile Virus, this would occur because a warmer planet could create more mosquito friendly habitats, increasing the chances of humans getting bit by mosquitoes carrying diseases. And unfortunately, it won't be just the party-loving spring breakers who refuse to social distance who get bit. (inquisitive music) (bubble popping) Global drought could also lead to massive loss of homes, force migration into urban areas and increase vulnerability to sickness due to overcrowding and lack of resources. In Syria, a drought from 2006 to 2010 killed off 80% of the country's livestock, forcing over 1.5 million Syrians into already crowded urban centers and further stressing the resources of a nation on the verge of social uprising, war, and a humanitarian crisis. - I believe the way we treat climate refugees is going to lead to disease outbreaks. Because when people start moving around and then instead of putting them in decent conditions, we pack 'em into things like refugee camps, with limited access to water and limited access to decent toilet facilities. You're going to get disease outbreaks and those are going to spread. (inquisitive music) (bubble popping) - Another fun thing for us to worry about, is the Arctic permafrost melting at increasing rates due to our earth getting hotter, which may unleash ancient viruses and bacteria that haven't been seen in centuries. Like The Dougie, I miss that dance. Frozen permafrost is the perfect environment for microbes, bacteria, and viruses to remain alive for thousands of years. Maybe even up to a million years because it is cold, dark, and lacks oxygen. Like all the comment sections on YouTube. Some viruses that may emerge could even predate human life and be viral diseases experienced by now extinct species like Neanderthals. But your friend who's D.N.A. test came back with 1% Neanderthal will be fine. Or they won't, I don't know. In 2005, N.A.S.A. scientists were able to revive bacteria that had been frozen in an Alaskan pond for 32 thousand years. The microbes they released had been frozen since wooly mammoths were alive. And once thawed from the ice, the microbes began just swimming around, seemingly unaffected. The same scientists tried to revive Vine, but were unsuccessful. (inquisitive music) (bubble popping) Wow, what a bevy of exciting, new ways for the human species to perish that we have to look forward to. Unfortunately the climate crisis isn't a far off reality, like One Direction getting back together, but something that we're already experiencing and will sadly continue to experience in our lifetimes like forgetting to cancel a free trial of something when you only really wanted to watch that one show. In case this video really stressed you out, I'm sorry. But there are things you can do. Without a doubt, governments and corporations should be the ones that are doing the big moves to address the climate crisis. But individuals can act to. This crisis is so big and crazy like all the drama in Joe Exotic's life, that we need everyone doing everything they can on every level, big and small. I literally can't stop talking about Joe Exotic, I'm sorry. During this time at home when a lot of us are online shopping, a small thing you can do right away is to consider consolidating your orders together. Instead of ordering rolls of toilet paper separately, order them together and opt for slower shipping times to help cut down on emissions. Maybe you really need a vagina candle in two days, who am I to tell you you don't, but think about it. And next time you're on the toilet, look and see if your favorite brand has a sustainability plan. And if it's a B.S. green washing one, consider supporting a sustainable brand instead. Yes, there's more you can do. (record scratching) But I'm pleading with you to start somewhere, anywhere, to help this blue marble we call home.