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  • If you're watching this video around the time it comes out, and maybe for months after as well, then chances are you're currently stuck in your homequarantined.

    もしもこの動画が出た頃、何ヶ月もあとに見ているようであれば、今も家から出られずにいるのでしょう。Quarantined (隔離)

  • You've also probably heard that word more in the last few months than you have in your entire life put together.


  • But what does "quarantine" actually mean, and where does the word really come from?

    しかし、Quarantine (隔離) とは実際に何を意味し、どこからその言葉は来たのでしょう?

  • Let's take a break from epidemiology to instead study the etymology of this extremely popular global buzzword, and to get to the root cause of the word "quarantine."


  • If you're going by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of the word, the two you're probably most familiar with are "a restraint upon the activities or communications of a person or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests" and "a state of enforced isolation."

    Merriam-Webster 辞典の単語の定義を見てみると、あなたがよく知っているのは「人の活動や交流、病気や害虫などの拡散を防ぐために立案されたモノの移動の制限」と「強制隔離の状態」の2つでしょう。

  • But these are actually only the third and fourth definitions of the word.

    しかし実際はこれらの意味は 3 番目と 4 番目の定義でしかないのです。

  • The first and second are "a period of 40 days" and "a term during which a ship arriving in port and suspected of carrying contagious disease is held in isolation from the shore."

    1 つ目と 2 つ目の定義は「 40 日間」と「港に着いて伝染病をもった疑いのある船の着岸が禁止される期間」です。

  • Probably not what you're expecting, right?


  • Well, let's turn back time and explore these more esoteric definitions.


  • Like a lot of English words, "quarantine" was largely plagiarized from Western Europe.

    多くの英単語のように、quarantine は主に西ヨーロッパから盗用されました。

  • It's derived from the Latin word 'quadraginta' and the Italian word 'quaranta,' both of which mean "forty."

    ラテン語の quadraginta 、イタリア語の quaranta から来ており、どちらも40を意味します。

  • The actual act that the word "quarantine" refers to has been in use since long before the word ever came into prominence.

    quarantine という言葉の実際の行為は目立つようになるずっと前から使われてきました。

  • Even the Bible has references to the isolation of lepers in order to prevent the spread of leprosy.


  • Prior to the 14th century when the term was coined, many cultures even had designating areas for sequestering the sick.

    この言葉が作られた14 世紀前、多くの文化に病人を隔離する指定地域がありました。

  • In Venice, these were called 'lazarettos,' named after Lazarus, the man Jesus was said to have brought back from the dead, and also the Catholic patron saint of lepers.

    ベネチアではこういった地域は lazarettos (伝染病室)と呼ばれ、Lazarus という死の淵から蘇った男の名から名付けられ、ハンセン病にかかったカトリック教徒の聖人もいました。彼は同時にカトリック教徒の聖人でもありました。

  • And they were built outside of the city to keep the sick separate from the general population.


  • However, it was during history's deadliest pandemic, the Black Deathwhich killed around 200 million victimsthat quarantine as a term came into use.

    しかし 2 億人以上の犠牲者を出した歴史上最もひどいパンデミックであるペストの間に、 quarantine という言葉は使われるようになりました。

  • The Venetian-controlled port city of Ragusa, which is now Dubrovnik in modern Croatia, implemented a plague-time policy known as 'trentino.'


  • Under 'trentino,' trade ships arriving from plague-infested areas were to be isolated for a period of 30 days to see if the crew presented plague symptoms before letting them mix with the general population.


  • Criminals who broke the law also faced 30 days in isolation under 'trentino.'

    法律を破った犯罪者もまたトレンティーノ下では 30 人間隔離されました。

  • This policy turned out to be quite successful, and over the next 80 years was also adopted by Pisa, Marseilles, and a number of other cities.

    この政策はかなり成功したことがわかり、その後 80 年以上に渡ってピサやマルセイユ、そしてもっと他の都市にも採用されました。

  • During the next century of development, the period of isolation was moved from 30 to 40 days, meaning the name changed from 'trentino' to 'quarantino' which was then anglicized to "quarantine."

    開発・発展の次の世紀の間、隔離の期間は 30 日から 40 日に移り、トレンティーノから quarantino に変わり、英語化して quarantine となったのです。

  • There's a lot of speculation as to why they changed the number of days from 30 to 40.

    彼らがなぜ 30 日から 40 日にしたかについて、かなりの憶測があります。

  • And some suggest it could be an extra safety precaution, others posit it might be because of the religious significance of the number 40, like Christ's Biblical 40 days fasting in the desert.

    余分な予防策という人もいれば、キリスト教の聖書における 40 日の砂漠での断食のように、40 という数字の宗教的な重要性のせいだとする人もいます。

  • But, like many aspects of history, it's equally likely the change was purely arbitrary.


  • The enforcement of the 'quarantino' was often fickle and inconsistent, and often made exceptions for the rich and influential who could simply buy themselves out of isolation when the poor bore the brunt of the law.


  • And that may have been several hundred years ago, but really, some things never change.


  • Thanks for watching this bite-sized episode of the Infographics Show!

    the Infographics Show のちょっとしたエピソードを見てくださってありがとうございました!

  • Wanna hear more perilous plague facts to get you through your 'quarantino?'


  • Why not check out "What Made The Black Death (The Plague) So Deadly?" and "Could the Black Death (The Plague) Happen Again?”

    "What Made The Black Death (The Plague) So Deadly?" と "Could the Black Death (The Plague) Happen Again?” を見てみましょう。

  • In the meantime, stay safe, stay quarantined, and wash your hands!


If you're watching this video around the time it comes out, and maybe for months after as well, then chances are you're currently stuck in your homequarantined.

もしもこの動画が出た頃、何ヶ月もあとに見ているようであれば、今も家から出られずにいるのでしょう。Quarantined (隔離)

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