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  • Welcome everyone, I'm Carl Azuz for CNN 10.

    皆さん、今日も CNN10 の時間がやってきました。カール・アズスです。

  • After more than two months, the lockdown has been lifted in the first Chinese city to see coronavirus cases.

    2 ヶ月以上に渡るロックダウンが解除され、ついにコロナウイルス発生源となった町がいつもの生活を取り戻しつつあります。

  • Is this something we can expect to happen in other places in the months ahead?


  • Wuhan, China was where the outbreak was first reported last December though there are indications it was spreading before that.

    中国の武漢では昨年 12 月に感染拡大被害が確認されましたが、それ以前から感染は始まっていたとする見方もあります。

  • The city of 11 million people was put on lockdown on January 23, two-and-a-half-months later on Wednesday Wuhan's borders were reopened.

    人口 1100 万人を抱える武漢は、1 月 23 日にロックダウンに入りましたが、今週水曜日に 2 か月半ぶりにロックダウン解除となったのです。

  • People in good health could leave the city.


  • Trains started running.


  • Flights resumed, though there are no direct routes to the Chinese capital, Beijing.


  • There are still some restrictions in place in Wuhan and the coronavirus threat isn't over in China or elsewhere.


  • There are indications that some European countries are planning to follow China's example in terms of when to lift their lockdowns and the timing of that is tricky.


  • It's better for economies if restrictions are lifted.


  • But health officials say if that's done too soon the virus could surge again leading to more problems.


  • The disease continues to spread and claim lives in the United States.


  • Officials are hoping that after this week things will start to get better with the number of deaths decreasing and the spread slowing down in some hard-hit areas.


  • But this doesn't mean that businesses and schools will reopen soon.


  • Companies are still laying off employees or suspending their hours and pay.


  • And a top U.S. health official says he's optimistic that schools will be open nationwide by the fall, though communities will have to be more proactive in identifying and isolating the virus.


  • Before many schools closed and shifted to online learning.


  • Professional sporting events were cancelled across America.


  • When might game clocks start ticking again?


  • A computer helping call the balls and strikes to keep umpires at a distance.


  • No consultations on the pitching mound.


  • Players not in crowded dugouts but spread out in the empty stands and every team, every game in Arizona.

    アリゾナでは、各チーム毎試合ごとに選手がダグアウトで 1 か所に集まることも許されず、無人のスタンドに広がって座って待機する。

  • That's how it may look if Major League Baseball says play ball next month according to multiple reports.


  • Baseball's official stance remains unchanged.

    MLB 機構のスタンスはこれまでと変わっていません。

  • We're going to resume playing when it's safe for our fans, our players and the public for us to resume playing.


  • The plan under discussion would attempt to create a safe zone with teams operating in isolation for months amid rigorous virus testing at their hotels, on buses, in stadiums, closed to all fans.


  • Other pro sports are nibbling at resuming with similar plans to limit exposure but only tentatively.


  • Basketball commissioner, Adam Silver.


  • At least for the month of April, we won't be in a position to make any decisions.

    少なくとも 4 月いっぱいは、何も進展について話し合いを持つことはありません。

  • And I don't think that necessarily means on May 1 we will be.

    だからといって、5 月 1 日に何か動きがあるかということにもつながりません。

  • Hockey's Stanley Cup playoffs should have started this week.


  • Instead ideas are being floated for returning to the ice maybe this summer in North Dakota.


  • Those seem barely more than rumors.


  • The league is saying little.


  • And the biggest game around, football, the NFL's draft is this month with teams planning virtual parties to celebrate.

    そして最大の人気を誇るアメフト、NFL のドラフト会議が今月予定されていますが、各チームともバーチャルパーティーを開催して指名のお祝いをする計画が立てられています。

  • In a conference call to sports officials days ago, the president said he hopes the league can kickoff on time in September.

    スポーツ関係者との電話会議を数日前に行ったトランプ大統領は、アメフトのリーグは通常の 9 月開幕に間に合うだろうとの期待をしていましたが、

  • But many state and local officials are questioning all this talk of sports coming back soon.


  • That's not something I anticipate happening in the next few months.


  • With billions of dollars and thousands of jobs at stake, of course everybody would like to see sports up and running again.


  • But for now, the teams and the towns that host them seem to be saying they will let health officials make that call.


  • Tom Foreman, CNN, Bethesda, Maryland.

    メリーランドのベセスダより、CNN のトム・フォアマンでした。

  • 10 Second Trivia.

    10 秒トリビアの時間です。

  • What is the term for a part of the ocean that's beyond a nation's control?


  • High seas, off-shore territory, contiguous zone or limited enforcement zone.


  • According to the United Nations Law of the Sea, the high seas are outside territorial claims.


  • Last week a Vietnamese fishing boat was sunk in the South China Sea.


  • It was sailing near a group of islands claimed by both Vietnam and China and the two countries blame each other for sinking the boat who's crew was rescued by the Chinese coast guard.


  • The South China Sea is an important part of the ocean.


  • Since 2014, China has come under international scrutiny for building artificial islands there.

    2014 年以降、中国はここに人工島を作り上げたことで世界的に非難を浴びています。

  • It sees this body of water as its territory.


  • Other nations in the region and the United States say China's claims are illegal.


  • The islands and reefs of the South China Sea are variously claimed by six different governments.

    南シナ海の島や岩礁は 6 つの政府によってそれぞれが主権を持つものとなっています。

  • That's right, six.


  • And sovereignty over these islands is significant because of something called the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or UNCLOS.


  • UNCLOS states that every coastal nation has the rights within a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone off its coastal waters.

    UNCLOS は、海岸線を持つ国は海岸から 200 海里を独自の経済水域とすることができるとしています。

  • Ownership of the islands, therefore, dictates who has the rights to the resource-rich South China Sea.


  • Who owns the seas has always been a difficult concept.


  • In the 18th century, Dutch legal theorist Cornelis van Bynkershoek stated that a nation owned the amount of sea it could defend from the land.

    18 世紀には、オランダの法理論家 Cornelis van Bynkershoek が海域を所有する国は陸地から自衛することができると述べました。

  • At the time, that was the distance of cannon fire around 3 nautical miles.


  • The cannon shot rule is still used by several countries to this day including Jordan and Singapore.


  • In 1945, President Truman extended U.S. jurisdiction to the end of its continental shelf.

    1945 年にはトルーマン大統領がアメリカの管轄水域を大陸棚の終わりにまで延長しました。

  • The continuation of the land mass underwater until it drops down to the ocean floor.


  • Then the U.S. built the world's first offshore oil platform out of sight of land in the Gulf of Mexico in 1947, 10 and a half miles off the Louisiana coast.

    そして、アメリカは世界初の海底油田を、陸地から見えないルイジアナ海岸から 10.5 マイル沖合のメキシコ湾に 1947 年に建設したのです。

  • That started a race to claim oceanic resources far beyond the cannon shot distance from the shoreline.


  • This lead to a lot of countries clashing over their perceived rights.


  • For example, the UK and Iceland had no less than three disputes known as "Cod Wars" over the fish in what are now Icelandic waters.


  • We will feel ourselves obliged to several diplomatic nations.


  • To mediate these disputes, UNCLOS was drawn up and came into force in 1994.

    こういった衝突を避けるために、UNCLOS 設立案が立てられて 1994 年の権利行使開始に至ったのです。

  • It carved up maritime territory into four main sections, typically measured from the low water line on a nation's shores.

    ここでは、海洋区域を各国の海岸の低い位置から 4 つの主要区域に分けて

  • Within the territorial waters, a state can regulate use and has ownership over any resources found within.


  • Foreign states can sail through but they have to abide by the nation's laws.


  • Within the contiguous zone, a state can continue to enforce laws in four specific areas, customs, taxation, immigration and pollution.

    接続水域では、通関上、財政上、出入国管理上又は衛生上の規則といった 4 つの特定要素への違反を防止するために沿岸国が規制権を行使できます。

  • Within the EEZ, the state has the sole rights over natural resources.


  • But foreign states may sail through, lay underwater cables and even pass through for military reasons.


  • And on the continental shelf, a state has the rights to resources in the subsoil of the continental shelf but not the water column above if it is beyond the EEZ.


  • Although 168 parties have ratified UNCLOS, it has far from resolved maritime territory disputes.

    UNCLOS には 168 ヶ国が批准していますが、これで海域問題が解決されているかと言えばそうではありません。

  • For example, France went up against Canada outside the Gulf of Saint Lawrence over its overseas territory at Saint Pierre and Miquelon.


  • Their fight is with Canada...


  • Even sending in navy frigate and seismic ship to test for oil in disputed waters before the two came to an agreement in 1992.

    海軍船舶や地震探査船までも送りこんで、両国が権利を主張し合っている海域内で原油採掘の調査を行いましたが、1992 年に双方合意に至りました。

  • And then there's the South China Sea.


  • Based on it's claim over the Spratly Islands, China states its EEZ covers pretty much the whole of the South China Sea violating the EEZ's of several countries.


  • Despite the wording of UNCLOS, China believes it can control military activity in the EEZ too, leading to numerous clashes with the U.S. which regularly holds frequent navigation patrols in the South China Sea.

    UNCLOS から注意を受けたにもかかわらず、中国は排他的経済水域でも軍事活動を出来るという姿勢を崩しておらず、南シナ海で定期的な警備活動を行っているアメリカ軍と数多く衝突を起こしていますが

  • Leading to the question, if one country can ignore UNCLOS, what's stopping the rest?

    中国が UNCLOS の命令を無視することができるこの状況が続くと、他の国も同じような態度を取りかねないという懸念が出てきます。

  • [10 out of 10]

    10 out of 10

  • Pennsylvania is burying it's graffiti highway once and for all.


  • The 3/4 mile stretch of road has been closed since 1993 because the coal that runs beneath it had been burning for decades.

    長さにして 3/4 マイルの道路は、地下部分にある石炭が数十年に渡って燃え続けているため 1993 年以降閉鎖されています。

  • But after the road was covered with graffiti, it became an unofficial tourist attraction despite being extremely dangerous.


  • With crowds gathering there during the coronavirus pandemic, the highway's private owner decided to cover the highway with dirt and the company doing that says it will probably be planted with trees and grass.


  • If covering it was a crime that will now be covered up.


  • Officials have plenty of dirt on the vandals and while they've all hit road by now thinking their "gra-free-ti."


  • It's still sad when art gets "buried and burned," it seems a low way for a highway to go.


  • Before we go, shout out to Lafayette High School in Lafayette, Louisiana.


  • We're grateful to have you watching. I'm Carl Azuz for CNN 10.

    今日もご覧いただきありがとうございます。CNN 10 のカール・アズスでした。

Welcome everyone, I'm Carl Azuz for CNN 10.

皆さん、今日も CNN10 の時間がやってきました。カール・アズスです。

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    林宜悉 に公開 2020 年 04 月 20 日