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  • [ ♪ Intro ♪ ]

  • The United Arab Emirates is really good at enormously ambitiousand just physically

  • enormousprojects.

  • From the Burj Khalifa to their artificial islands, to the mountain they want to build,

  • to that giant indoor ski resort they have: the UAE is about pushing the limits of engineering,

  • sometimes out of necessity, and sometimes because they're just feeling it.

  • And now they're taking that feeling and running with it to Mars, in the form of a

  • giant Martian colony.

  • But first, they're planning to build a model colony here on Earththe biggest Mars

  • simulation anyone has ever done.

  • In 2014, the UAE established their space program and announced their inaugural mission: the

  • Al-Amal, or Hope, orbiter, which will monitor Mars's atmosphere and weather.

  • Mars's atmosphere used to be much thicker, and the causes of its thinning aren't entirely known.

  • The planet's lack of magnetic field probably plays a role, but we don't have any definitive

  • answers to the question yet.

  • So with Hope, they'rehopingto answer that question.

  • It's set to launch in 2020 and arrive at Mars in 2021.

  • But the UAE is thinking really long term about Mars, and also has plans to build a whole

  • city up there.

  • They want to get 600,000 people living on Mars.

  • That's super ambitious, especially considering we haven't sent anyone to Mars yet, but

  • their deadline is 100 years from now, so they do have plenty of time to figure it out.

  • And that's where their most recent Mars-related project comes in: a smaller, model colony

  • in the Emirates.

  • And when I saysmaller,” all I mean is that It's not going to be nearly as big

  • as the actual planned colony on Mars.

  • It'll still be pretty darn hugeabout two-tenths of a square kilometer in area,

  • or about half the size of the Vatican.

  • And the whole thing is going to be covered with domes!

  • It won't be the first simulated Mars habitat, although it will be the biggest.

  • The Mars Society runs two habitats, in Utah in the US and Nunavut in Canada.

  • And the University of Hawaii has one too.

  • All of these simulations are places for teams of scientists to conduct astrobiological and

  • geological research in environments that are a lot like Mars.

  • And at the same time, they can simulate the realities of living in a scientific settlement

  • on a planet that can't support you.

  • There tend to be lots of rules: you can't go outside of your living space without wearing

  • a spacesuit; your water use is extremely well-regulated, and you can't communicate off-base without

  • a 20-minute delay.

  • The habitats allow scientists to work on their own projects there, while simultaneously being

  • part of a long-term psychological experiment: how will scientists fare when stuck in a little

  • hab together?

  • How do we meet their psychological and emotional needs?

  • The UAE's environment will work on answering similar questions by having a crew live in

  • their habitat for a year.

  • But it'll also be a sandbox for engineers to test the kinds of systems they'll need

  • to support a long-term settlement on Mars, something we haven't really been able to

  • do before on such a large scale.

  • Everything is still very conceptual at this pointthe UAE Space Agency hasn't even

  • said when they're planning on having this thing built.

  • But they have released some very preliminary plans for their Dome-inion.

  • That's not the official name, we're just really hoping it catches on.

  • The colony will be contained inside three domes, and it's going to be really crucial

  • to get those domes right.

  • Earth's atmosphere filters out lots of UV radiation from the sun, but Mars's atmosphere

  • isn't thick enough to do that.

  • Which means people on the surface would face everything from bad sunburns to skin cancer

  • unless they're protected.

  • In theory the domes are going to do the job that Mars's atmosphere can't, and will be

  • made out of a material that can shield inhabitants from Mars's high UV flux.

  • Based on some of the concept art they've drawn up, it might also be possible to control

  • how much light the material lets through, which would be a way to have the people and

  • plants in the model city living on Martian day/night cycles.

  • No word on what this material is yet, but again, they have a while to figure it out.

  • Since the whole thing will be enclosed, engineers will be able to test the atmospheric regulation

  • systems, water filtration systems, temperature regulation systemsall the usual mechanical

  • stuff that you need to survive when your environment can't support you.

  • And they'll be developing these systems to accommodate a small city, rather than just

  • a li'l habitat or a space station, so it's a big challenge!

  • But probably the biggest problem engineers will have to solve is how to feed everyone.

  • For a permanent or semi-permanent colony, you can't rely on shipments of food from Earth.

  • And while Mars's soil does contain some of the elements and molecules that plants need

  • to grow, they're not abundant enough to really support agriculture.

  • So we'll have to apply everything we know about agriculture to this new environment,

  • which is okay because if humans know how to do anything, it farming.

  • We are so good at that.

  • It's kind of our thing as a species.

  • That and long-distance running and fully rotatable arms.

  • Anyway, farming: we're really good at it, especially since we've figured out how to

  • manipulate genes.

  • Genetically modified plants that can thrive in relatively nutrient-poor soil or produce

  • higher amounts of proteins, carbs, or essential vitamins already exist, and of course we have

  • all kinds of fertilizers, both natural and synthetic.

  • So a lot of the foundation work is done therebut we are still a long way from being

  • able to farm in such an extreme environment as Mars.

  • Even with plenty of potatoes and poop.

  • In addition to all the research going on in the Dome-inion, they're also planning on

  • building a museum in there, with walls 3D-printed from local sand.

  • The museum will celebrate the history of human spaceflight, and who knowsmaybe by a

  • century from now, it'lll inspire 600,000 people to pick up their lives and fly to another planet.

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space!

  • To learn more about other plans to help us live on Mars, you can check out our episode

  • about the plans for Mars One.

  • [ ♪ Outro ♪ ]

[ ♪ Intro ♪ ]

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B1 中級

UAEの地球上の火星都市 (The UAE's Martian City on Earth)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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