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Welcome back.
So today I want to do an introduction to virtualization and why it's important in the cloud computing infrastructure.
So the first thing that we need to talk about is the bad old days of how we used to have to deal with servers and how the server operating systems used to be married to the hardware.
So back in the old days, you would have a physical machine, you would have a physical server, you would install the operating system onto that physical server.
You would then install things like device drivers.
So that operating system was able to communicate with all the hardware in that server.
You would then install the service.
Is the software all the applications you needed on that server and then you would have the finished box, right.
So if you had an exchange server, you would have the physical server than you would install Windows Server that he would install exchange.
Then you install anti spam software, that kind of thing and all of that became your server.
The issue is, though it was all married together.
And what I mean by that is it.
The CPU fan fails on that physical server.
Your email service is go away, right?
So basically, the CPU fan fails.
If the power supply fails of anything fails on the physical box.
If everything relies on that Juan box and order provide service is for your users.
If any single thing fails on that box, all the service's go away.
Well, honestly, having a CPU fan or power supply fail really isn't the worst thing in the world, right?
Your your server will be down for a little bit, but you can just go out.
Buy a new power supply by new CPU fan.
Screw it in drink.
Cup of coffee screwed in and your users were out of their service is for a little while.
That's not the worst thing in the world.
But what can be one of the worst things in the world is when you have a very old server where the motherboard fails.
So remember so right.
You have the physical surgery of physical motherboards, all of that you wouldn't you install the server operating system onto that physical server.
And then you have the device drivers in everything for the motherboard and for all the other hardware on the system.
Well, the problem is, is basically when you and install an operating system onto that physical hardware.
Normally it kind of glues itself to the hardware again.
There's there's a hardware profiles, there's device drivers.
This there's all this stuff.
So basically, the operating system wants to be on that specific hardware.
Uh, if something happens and you simply pull the hard drive out of the machine and plug it into a new piece of hardware, you can have a lot of major issues because there is not the correct device.
Drivers.
There's a whole lot of their problems I can happen.
So one of the things that I've seen in the real world is you may have a machine that's been running for 10 or 12 or even 13 years, and all of a sudden the motherboard fails.
For whatever reason, you can't replace the motherboard because, you know, nobody has a 13 year old motherboard laying around on.
Then you run into this issue where you have the server operating system you have everything on the hard drive.
But how do you then get that to work on a new physical machine?
It can really, really be a major problem, especially if you run into issues where it let's, say, the old operating system that you're dealing with.
If if the company that maintain that operating system and never built device drivers for new hardware, like things like like new, uh, hard drive controllers, that kind of thing, you can run into a major issue.
I actually ran into this with one of my clients again.
They had a 13 year old machine was a proprietary UNIX system.
It had been working wonderfully for 13 years, 13 years and one day the motherboard failed again.
Okay, whatever the motherboard failed, while a problem we literally ran into is all the hardware was archaic.
There's just no way to find any hardware that was in this machine and then not only that, but it was a proprietary version of UNIX, where the company that had the vendor had that had created that version of UNIX.
They also had actually gone out of business.
And so this wasn't Lennox.
This was units and So we had a real problem with trying to figure out, like how to take the hard drive that we had back in the day, put it into a new piece of hardware and then actually make all of that work.
So when you start thinking about virtualization and virtual machines, here's a nifty need idea.
What if we could make the operating system essentially?
Basically, it's its own file, so you can create.
You can create something called a virtual hard drive or a dot ve a DEA file.
And that file that has everything that has your operating system that has the files as a configurations that has the software that has all the pictures and documents and everything else in this one virtual hard drive.
And then when you could do is you can simply pick up and move that virtual hard drive to any other machine, and you won't run into the same type of hardware issues that you would if the operating system was installed on the physical machine itself.
So basically what we're dealing with when we're dealing with a virtual machines and vocalizations is we installed something called a hyper visor onto the physical machine.
So you have a physical Michigan.
You install a hyper visor on that physical machine and think of a hyper visor basically is like a base level operating system, the lowest level operating system that you need.
And so you put that hyper visor onto that physical machine.
Then you can keep create virtual machines.
You can create virtual servers within that hyper visor, and those virtual servers simply resigned within and their old their own V a v a g d file so that they can then be moved around so I can install a hyper visor on this particular machine.
If this particular machine fails, I can simply take that virtual hard drive.
Just dump it onto a different machine with a hyper visor, and it can be up and running again.
Kind of Think about the hyper visor is a little bit like Java.
So if you ever deal to Java programming language, what happens is you have a base layer of java that you install on a client operate systems.
You have java for maki of Java.
For Lennox, you have a job for windows, so on and so forth, and then basically what you're able to do is you're just able to code above that Java layer.
So Java deals with all all the hardware in the operating system and all that, and then you're able to create your code on top of that.
So you create a one piece of code that can run on Mac.
It can run on Windows.
It can run on Lennox if it has that job a layer installed.
I kind of think about that as the hyper visor.
So you have a hyper visor installed onto your computer.
That hyper visor deals with the hardware deals with all those kind of things, and then your virtual machine can then run in the hyper visor.
And so that's what makes basically virtual ization of virtual servers so valuable and so good began, especially the climate computer environment, because we can now start taking operating systems and you can start moving them around at like a file or folder, just like you would any kind of picture or mover or movie.
Normally, let's take a moment to talk about the hyper visors, so there's two standard types of hyper visors.
There's a type one hyper visor, and there is a type to hyper visor, and then vendors create different products based off of these two different types of hyper visors.
So the first type of hyper visor, the type one hyper visor, is called a bare metal hyper visor.
And what a bear mental hyper visor is is basically, you would install a hyper visor onto the physical server, and that hyper visor is about the lowest level operating system that is required in a new order to run virtual machines on that physical hardware.
So a type one hyper visor is an operating system, but you're not gonna be browsing the Web on it.
You're not gonna be writing documents on it.
You're not gonna be using a calculator on it.
Basically, all that operating system allows you to do is it allows you to run a virtual machines on that physical server, and that is it.
When you do what they type too high provides, or a type to hyper visor is probably something you're a little bit more familiar with products such as a virtual box or parallels or Veum, where fusion, what this is is you already have a full host operating system on your computer.
You have a Windows computer, Mac computer, a Lennox's computer, you a full fledged operating system there.
And then what you do is you install a type to hyper visor on to that operating system, and then you're able to create virtual machines within that type to hyper visor that you have installed s Oh, this could be very useful for people, especially if you're doing things like testing.
So if you're going to be doing, like Web design testing, So let's say you're a Web designer.
You want to see how your website is going to look on different operating systems with different Web browsers with different configurations.
What you can into is you're gonna solve a type to hyper visor onto your computer on.
Then you can have.
You can have Lennox you know, a bun, too, with fire fox, and you can open that in one window, and then you kind of Windows 10 with Google chrome and another window.
And basically you can have a whole bunch of different windows open and these air full flag instances of operating systems that are completely running, but they're running within their own little containers within that type to hyper visor.
So that other explain that let's go over the white board.
I'll explain the type one hyper visors a little bit more.
And then I'll go to the computer just to show you how Virtual Box works to give you an idea of the type to hyper visors.
Now, when you first start dealing with type one hyper visors, they're gonna seem a little bit scary, especially if you don't know what's going on, right?
So if you're gonna go out there and you're gonna download and install something called E s X I So this is VM wears a type on hyper visor.
You're gonna be all excited, right?
So you're gonna install E S X I onto one of your physical machines and then you're gonna be like, Yes, Now I'm gonna learn how to do this whole virtualization thing.
The problem is, is once you've installed E S X I onto that physical machine, all you're going to get is a blinking cursor or something along those lines.
Basically, what you're going to get at this point is something that is not actually that useful to you, right?
And so one of one of problems a lot of new technicians run into is they're so used to the graphical user environment world.
When they wind up with something like a little blinking cursor, they just kind of get a little scared.
They give up, and they want to go home now.
The important thing to understand is, when you're dealing with type one hyper visors is that you're dealing with systems that are supposed to be going into a production environment.
So basically, these hyper visors are just going to simply be installed possibly on one or two machines, But they might be installed on hundreds or possibly even thousands of machines, right?
And because of that, the whole type one hyper visor infrastructure is built in a different way than the type to hyper visor infrastructure.
That's a lot easier, a lot more user friendly.
So when you're dealing with type one, basically what happens is you install the type one hyper visor on to your machines, right, so basically either have one physical machine or you have 20 or 1000 physical machines and sees install the type one hyper visor onto these machines.
Then after that, you use something such as V sphere from VM wear.
And this is the software.
This is the software that actually manages these type one hyper visors.
So you have your little computer.
So you have a Mac computer windows computer.
Whatever else you install, V's fear onto your computer is basically a management console.
You then connect to your E S X I hyper visors.
And from that point, you're then able to start creating and then managing your virtual machines.
So that's one thing that a lot of people get confused about and can run into a lot of problems.
Also, one of the issues that you've run into is again, especially when you're looking at something like type one hyper visors.
Uh, you know, when you look at the price, the price for something like E.
S Xie is free.
So you're sitting there, you're going.
Wow.
Oh, well, okay, well, well, VM where e s x I type one hyper visor.
That's free.
So I'm definitely going to go with the M Where?
But this is where, like that whole pricing licensing thing and all that kind of stuff can screw you up because to be clear, as far as I know.
I think it still is.
Yes, Exile is free.
This type one hyper visor is free.
But guess what?
In order to make this type of these type one hyper visors do anything that you actually want them to.
D'oh!
You need a product called V Sphere.
And these fear has many, many, many different licenses.
I do think one of them is free.
I do believe one version of these here is free, but then the other licenses get very, very, very, very, very expensive.
And so that's one of the issues that you could be running into when you're dealing with the type one hyper visors and you're building out, the infrastructure is you look and go.
Okay, well, this is no problem.
E s excise gonna be free, so I know what my price point is gonna be.
But then you find now these fear is going through.
Then Bill, you you're going to be card for licenses, depending on how many e s X I servers that it's supposed to manage eso back in the day.
It was about $1000 per server.
Well, and the thing is like the sphere gives you a lot of really cool functionality.
You can have things like high availability fail over.
So if you have an instance of a man a server running on one of your hyper visors and that physical machine fails, V sphere then can automatically move your, uh, your virtual machine over to another physical machine.
It can do all this automatic migration.
It can do a lot of cool things, like high availability and all that.
But do you realize you're going to be paying a fee for that?
So that's one of the things you consider when the other things be considering If you're sitting here and you're like, OK, well, let's see, We got the virtual machines here.
So these air these air, the type one hyper visors and we have the V sphere over here.
And that's what manages a type one hyper visors.
And then one of the questions that you may be asking yourself like, Well, how How does a virtual machine actually get migrated from one hyper visor to the other?
Right?
Because again, if it's if it's a pretty large server operating system, right, that might be like 100 gigs.
You know, you can't can't just move 100 gigs in half a second actually takes a little bit of time.
One thing to realize when we start talking about the type one hyper visors is again you're dealing with large scale infrastructure.
And so what may be happening with storage?
What happens a lot of times with type one hyper visors for storage is you have something called a sand.
So a san is a storage area network, so you have a lot of essentially dedicated servers that are dedicated to store data.
The store files, and so what you do is you actually have the V A K GS installed on your sand, or they're basically they're stored on your sand.
And then what happens is your hyper visors are able to communicate with the virtual hard drive that's stored on the sand.
So think of it this way.
So basically your Type one hyper visor, it's doing the compute, so it's computing.
It's giving.
The CPU is giving the ram for the virtual hard drive that's stored on the sand.
So all that really happens is if this one fails, then basically, just simply another hyper visor is able to pick up where the 1st 1 left off with the virtual hard drive.
And that's how the virtual hard drive is able to continue running.
So the virtual hard drive so the server files themselves are sitting on the sand there, simply access and manipulated by the type one hyper visors.
And then all of this, then gets managed by the V sphere management console.
So this is one of the reasons why type one Hyper visors can get a little bit confusing, especially in the beginning, because you have the hyper visors themselves.
Then you have the management console, and then, depending on how you can figure all of this, you may have a sand or some some other type of network attached storage that actually contains your V HDs.
And so this is a basic idea of how these type one hyper visors work.
And so, whenever you're going to be dealing with them, not only do you have to download, install whatever the Type one hyper visor, but you also have to download and install the management console and do do realize although this the type on hyper visor itself can be free, the management console the management software can actually be very expensive.
And then if you have to add a sand on top of that, that's when all of this could get very complicated very quickly with all this complication.
That's why a lot of people a when they're first starting to learn about virtualization and be generally from a day to day standpoint, a lot of people decide to use a type to hyper visor.
So we're talking about type two hyper visor.
Life just gets so much easier, right, because we're not gonna be dealing with the hyper visor and the the management console and additional storage, all of those things.
Basically, what we get to deal with is we just get to deal with our main host computer.
So you have your host computer and that has windows on it that has, you know, Mac OS that has Lennox.
Whatever else onto your host computer, you that install virtual box or parallels or Veum, where fusion basically a type to hyper visor.
And then once you've done that, then you can simply create instances of operating systems within that type to hyper visor.
The storage is local.
You don't need a management console type thing cause that's built into the type to hyper visor software.
And so this allows you to spin up instances of virtual machines simply on your host operating system, actually be able to interact with them, do whatever it is that you need to dio and then be able to shut them down.
It will.
So with that, let's go over to my My Mac computer, and I will actually just give you a little demonstration of virtual box to give you a better idea of how this works.
So here we are.
My MacBook pros is just the Mac book pro again with with Mac OS on it on.
What I've done is I've installed oracles Virtual box.
So Virtual Box is a type to hyper visor V M, where fusion parallels.
There are a number of other type to hyper visors out there.
I like virtual box because it is open source and especially when I'm doing classes of cool box works on all the different operate system, doing a virtual box for windows and get virtual box for Lennox and obviously get it for Mac.
And over here you can see the instances of the different servers and operating systems that I have created in order to dio classes for you folks for different things.
S Oh, these are so the instances that I created when I was doing the Lenox Siri's.
And you can see I haven't a bunch of desktop here I can have.
I have multiple different servers here, and this allows me to run a full who bun to server operating system, actually within the Mac operating system without them having to deal with each other.
Right?
So basically I can I can bring up a bun, too.
It's going to have its own I P address is going to have all of its own stuff.
It's on file, so configurations I can take the virtual hard drive for this particular server.
Simply copy and paste it over to a different machine, and everything is there for me so I can double click on this.
We could start this up.
We see with the normal kind of like post screen, normal, normal screen going on, we can see all the the different things happening.
So this is a place a completely normal you bun to start a process.
We see all the different things.
Starting we get to our normal log in screen.
I can log in as Bob.
You do the super secret passage a 123456 And there we go.
So now we are We're here.
We're actually at the the normal command props.
I wanna go here.
And what I could dio is I can type in i f config.
Right.
So if I type in, I have config.
What we can see is I actually have my own I p address.
So this server has everything unique, including able to go out and actually get its own d a c p i p address.
And so this is how I'm actually able to to spin up a server.
I'm able to do things such as install Apache or install other kinds of Web.
A service is on it.
I can play around with it, see what works, see what doesn't.
And then when I'm done at the end of the day, I can simply turn it off.
I could delete it, get rid of it.
It is easy to interact with as any normal, you know, file or folder that would be on your machine.
So this right here is a type to hyper visor.
And again, why most people like to start playing around type to hyper visors is because, literally all you have to do you simply install virtual box onto your operating system.
And then you're able to spin up, operate systems and play around with virtual machines without having to deal with with management servers, sands and all that kind of stuff.
So there you go.
There's a brave introduction to virtualization, and I hope it makes things a little bit easier for you to understand again.
One of the big problems that people run into when they first start learning about virtualization is they want to be like they want to be one of the big kids, right?
They don't want to deal with this this childish type to hyper visor stuff.
They want to go straight into type one hyper visors, right?
I'm a real tech professional.
I'm gonna use real tech professional software.
He's a type one hyper visor on.
Then they install the type one hyper visor, and they're sitting there looking at little blinking cursor, and you're like, Ah, what?
Dying down next and So you run into that issue, basically, you need you need not just the hyper visor, but then you also need the management software.
And again, depending on what hyper visor you're using, it may actually require that you connect back to something like a sand eso.
One of the hyper visors I was installing a while ago you could it installed.
We're through machines locally onto the server.
You could not use local storage.
It actually required that you something like a sand.
So you go to think, Oh, I'm gonna learn how to new virtualization.
And before you get there, you need to configure a sand and you need to figure out the man to myself where you figure out a lot of other things and then people give up and they go off to the florist s.
Oh, that's one of things to remember about the type one hyper visors.
Is there great And the enterprise environment.
It's mind blowing.
It's just it's fascinating how they work where again, you can have a whole cluster of these hyper visors.
Basically, is bare metal hyper visor servers.
The management software is able to migrate the instances of operating systems between all these visible servers of you.
If you have a server physically fail, it can auto migrates.
Um called high availability can auto migrate and instance to another physical server again.
Absolutely amazing, But But there's a lot to it on.
One of big issues that you run into, too, is a licensing for the management software.
That that's that's a painful one too, right?
Cause he s Xie is free, and this is one of those issues you get into it licensing.
And it's one of the things Like a lot of new people.
I do not understand that the real world of technology so much of what we do revolves around terms of service and licensing and that type of thing and one of big issues again, with type on hyper visors E s excise free, you can install it on a 1,000,000 servers for free.
It's completely legit.
Oh, you wouldn't do anything with one of those servers.
That's when you need the sphere.
These sphere is the software that allows you to manage those I providers and depending on what license or what what functions you're looking for?
The licenses could be nosebleed.
Brutally expensive, So just kind of keep us in mind If you're thinking about type one hyper visor, it can look very good.
Att.
The beginning of the day of the end of the day.
What you might realise is, Oh, you know that that child's play that childish type to hyper visor might actually do everything that you need on not cost you an arm and a leg do It s so again, this is This is something that one of things to think about with the different products and offerings are out there comes into licensing.
It comes into fees.
It comes in the usability, all that type of stuff.
When you're thinking about using virtualization, there's the number of different reasons you might think about using virtualization the first reason again that I would argue for his migrations.
The fact the matter is, if you have an instance of an operating system and you want to migrate to new hardware, right, so again you have a five year old server.
And if you have an instance of an operating system running on that five year old hardware, you literally just copy that instance two to the new hardware with a hyper visor.
You start everything up, maybe have to do a couple of tweaks, but that's it.
Your life is gonna be really easy.
On the other hand, if you have the server operating system installed onto hardware with all the device drivers and if that goes along with it, if you need to migrate or if you want to migrate up to better hardware, it could be a You're a pain in the ass is a polite way to put it right.
So one of the reasons you be thinking about doing a virtualization is that simple migration process again.
Nowadays, hardware is so powerful and so inexpensive because what a lot of people say is like, Well, but I don't wanna look.
I don't want to lose the power of my machine, right.
Having a server operating system installed directly under the bare metal hardware that will give you the best performance, Which is true.
To be clear, that is true.
But you know, if you have a physical machine that that that's ableto handle 10,000 active directory users and you have a company with 100 active directory users, if you lose a little bit of power.
There is a little pedal power.
It's not gonna be.
It's not gonna be that big an issue for you.
So it's one thing to think about.
Another thing you might want to think about is just from a security standpoint.
Now, remember, when you have a server and it's connected to the network, Every piece of functionality that server has is also a vulnerability, right?
So if you have exchange server installed, there's vulnerabilities to experience server, and there's vulnerabilities to a being that file server.
And there's vulnerabilities to be in Webster.
So one thing to think about is what what people get into problems with is they have one machine that provides all the service is for their users.
So it's the rowdy and remote access server, and it's the Web server.
And if the file server and it's the print server and it's the extreme served on one of the issues you can run into is if somebody's able able to compromise one component of that server, then they can compromise everything on that server, right?
You did something stupid with the share permissions for for the five file sharing and somebody is able to get root access of your exchange service is and be able to do really stupid things.
That's a big problem in the real world.
So one of things to you can think about with virtualization is you have one physical machine.
You install the hyper visor.
You then spend up an active directory server and then secure that, and then you spend up in extreme Server, and then you spend a routing remote access server.
So now that one physical machine is providing, all this service is that it normally would.
But but Ik, instance of an operating system is only providing one service, and therefore you can make your entire infrastructure much more secure.
So that's one of the things to be thinking about too past that you get to the issues of reliability again.
If you're dealing with type one hyper visors, the whole thing with high availability is absolutely awesome.
Get you put three or four physical machines into a hyper visor cluster.
If one physical machine fails, basically, VM wear V's fair is able to automatically migrate the instance of your operating system to another physical machine.
So even if you have physical failures, even of the CPU fan fails, even the power supply fails.
You're in.
Users will not even notice that it happened.
That could be a very valuable thing.
And then finally, the big reason that a lot of people use virtualization is simply for testing purposes, testing, obviously doing things like testing operating systems, creating little labs, that type of deal on, then also just making sure that their software or whatever they're going d'oh!
Works with different configurations.
Again, using think things like for toolbox there type to hyper visors could be very good in the Web.
Design work, right?
So you're on a design, a website.
Let's make sure how it looks on Windows eight and Windows 10 and you know, while we're doing it, let's look at this on Windows Vista with Internet Explorer and look at Windows eight using Firefox and looking out of Windows 10.
Using edge right by using virtualization.
You're just sitting at your one computer you spend up you know, the Windows Vista machine, and you take a look at what the website looks like.
Then you could just spend up the Windows eight machine.
Take a look with what with website looks like.
And that way it's very easy for you just to go through and do basic pigs.
Like like Web design Testing to verify everything is going to look how you think it should look in and react and interact.
How do you think is going to react and interact without having to have you know, 20 different machines all lined up for you to play with?
Uh, so this was a basic overview, an introduction to virtualization.
As always, I enjoy doing this video.
We look forward to the next one.
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Cloud Computing - Virtualization Introduction

林宜悉 2020 年 3 月 27 日 に公開
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