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You probably know Bill Gates as the founder of Microsoft, 你們知道比爾蓋茨是微軟創辦人
the hard-driving tech executive 擁有驚人魄力的科技公司高層人員
whose software fueled the personal computer revolution. 他開發的軟件激起個人電腦革命
You might also know him as the longtime richest man in the world 你們亦知道,這名多年世界首富
who left Microsoft five years ago 五年前離開微軟
so he could work fulltime, giving his money away. 讓自己可以全職派錢
We had the chance to witness Bill Gates 2.0- 我們有機會目睹比爾蓋茨2.0行動
the man you don't know. 他不為人知的一面
He is driven, as much as anyone we have ever met, 他可與我們見過的人媲美
to make the world a better place. 渴望改變世界
Gates told us why he thinks inventions 蓋茨向我們講解,他為何認為...
are the key to success, 科技是成功關鍵
and just what he intends to accomplish with his time, intellect 以及打算怎樣運用他的時間、知識
and sixty-seven-billion-dollar fortune, 和670億美元財富
starting with his plans to knock out some of the worlds deadliest diseases. 第一步是消滅世上最可怕的疾病
You're going to spend the next twenty years of your life trying to eradicate disease. 你打算用20年時間消滅疾病
- Yes? - Yep. 對嗎? 對
That's your mission? 這是你的使命?
That'll be the-- the majority of my time. 會佔用我大部分時間
Starting with polio? 從小兒麻痺症開始?
Get it done by 2018. 2018年之前要達到目標
Tuberculosis? 肺結核
Take probably six or seven years. 大約需要六、七年
Malaria? 瘧疾
Malaria's the one that the tools are being invented now- 對付瘧疾的工具已研發出來
fifteen and perhaps even twenty years- 大約需要15至20年才能完全消失
but start to really shrink that map. 但已開始見成效
These are the people Gates wants to help. 這些就是蓋茨要幫的人
They are what he calls the bottom two billion- 稱之為最貧窮的20億人
a third of the world's population that struggles on less than two dollars a day. 全球人口1/3,每天只有2美元可用
They are poor, hungry, lack electricity and clean water. 又窮又餓,缺電缺乾淨食水
Gates' most urgent goal: 蓋茨最迫使的目標
help the millions of children under five who die every year, 是每年救數百萬名5歲以下兒童
one every twenty seconds from preventable diseases. 預防疾病,否則每20秒有一個死去
No one alive that I know of has said 我所認識的活人當中,沒有一個說
my goal is to eradicate a disease and then another disease and then another disease. 我的目標是要將疾病一個一個消滅
This is somebody that dreams high. 這必出自一個抱負遠大的人
Yeah, because I'm-- I'm excited about that. And-- and it's-- it's doable. 對,我為此而興奮,而且事有可為
Today, Gates spends most of his time here, 現時,蓋茨大部分時間在這裡度過
at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in Seattle. 位於西雅圖的蓋茨夫婦基金
He runs it with his father, Bill Senior and his wife, Melinda, 與父親比爾、妻子美琳達一同打理
whom he credits with being a driving force behind the foundation. 他形容他們是基金背後的驅動力
There are over eleven hundred employees to help them decide 超過1100名員工協助他們決定
which programs to fund, 斥資扶助哪些計畫
but Gates still visits sites around the world 但蓋茨仍會到世界各地去
to see what's working and what's not. 視察計畫成效
I welcome Bill Gates to our school. 歡迎蓋茨來到我們的學校
The government of Ghana and all school-aged children 加納政府及所有學齡兒童
are grateful for your support. 感謝你的支持
Very well done. Great to be here. 很好,很高興來到這兒
The grants here go towards school nutrition-- 資金用來提供學童膳食
This is spinach. 這是菠菜
--Improving agriculture-- 改善農業
We don't have enough water in the river. 河流不夠水
--And, most important to Gates, life-saving vaccines. 和蓋茨最重視的研發救命疫苗
Okay. 好
Well, whenever you see a mother bringing a sick child into a facility, 每當你看到有媽媽帶病童來診所
it's easy to relate to, what if that was my child? 你一定會想若是我孩子我會怎樣
You realize, how crazy it is that with the world being rich enough 世界很荒謬,現時人們這麼富裕
to afford all sorts of frivolous things, 肆意揮霍
that those basic things still aren't-- aren't being provided. 但最基本的需要竟然不能滿足
But providing vaccines throughout the developing world 但提供疫苗給發展中國家
is no simple task. 殊非易事
So Gates has set up his foundation to run like Microsoft. 於是蓋茨用微軟的方式打理基金會
He insists on strict accounting 堅持帳目一定要清晰
and, when a problem arises, he pulls in the best people to find solutions. 一旦遇上難題,就找有能之士解決
We saw a good example of that when it comes to vaccines. 研發疫苗就是最佳例子
To be effective, they need to be kept cold. 疫苗一定要保持冷凍才有效
So this is using electricity? 這個用電操作?
But that's tough in hard to reach areas 但在冷藏庫短缺和經常壞的地方
where refrigerators are rare and unreliable. 這幾乎是天方夜譚
So back in Seattle, Gates turned to scientists at a company 於是蓋茨找西雅圖一公司的科學家
called Intellectual Ventures, 公司名叫高智發明
where he is both an investor and an inventor. 他是公司投資者及發明家
They created a super thermos using the same technology 他們研發出一個超能保溫庫
that protects spacecraft from extreme heat. 所運用的是太空船防高溫科技
Using only a single batch of ice, 只用一袋冰
it can keep vaccines cold for fifty days. 疫苗就能冷藏50天
- So here is the thermos? - That's right. 這個就是保溫庫 對
This holds vaccines for over two hundred children. 它能收藏疫苗供200多名兒童使用
And it doesn't require any battery, any energy. 無需用電池和能源
Its walls have been designed to be such a good thermos 庫壁經過特別設計
that even in very, very hot days, 即使天氣非常、非常炎熱
inside it will stay cold enough to make the vaccines work. 裡面依然冰冷,以保疫苗效用
And when you want to take them out, you just go in here, 若要取出來,只消伸手進去
- and there-- - There they are. 然後... 取出來
- --there's a whole tray of the vaccines. - Yeah. 取出一批疫苗 對
You take them out. 取出來
It records everything you've done with it, the temperature. 它具記憶功能,能夠恆溫
So it's a replacement for all those refrigerators that have been so unreliable. 可以取代容易壞的冷藏庫
- I mean, just look at this thing. - Yeah. 看這東西 對
When we take it out in the field, people go, oh, that's amazing. 我們帶出去室外,人人嘖嘖稱奇
- Yeah. - You can't do that. 是 這是不可能的
No matter how perfect the vaccine, 疫苗再好
if you can't get it to the people who need it, it ain't doing no good. 若不能帶給人群,便沒有用
That's right. 對
And now, you know, we need to get it to every child in the world. 現在需要將它帶給所有兒童
Gates is betting technology will solve other age old problems like sanitation. 蓋茨相信科技能解決衛生等老問題
Two and a half billion people around the world do not have adequate toilets. 全球25億人沒有足夠的廁所
That means streams and rivers get clogged with debris and human waste- 因此河川溪流裡滿是廢物便溺
becoming breeding grounds for disease. 成為疾病溫床
The toilet is one of those things that's like a vaccine, where it- 廁所就如疫苗一樣
it really would change the-- the situation. 能夠改善民生
So Gates launched a global competition: 於是蓋茨舉辦全球設計比賽
design a toilet that works without plumbing. 要求參加者設計無須抽水的馬桶
We had over twenty entrant. We gave four top prizes. 超過20人參賽,設4個獎
Some of them used burning. Some of them used a laser approach. 有人提議燃燒法,有人提議用激光
There-- there were quite a few novel ideas of how you reinvent the toilet. 都是具創意的革新廁所設計
And so this was one of the prototype designs 這是其中一個原型
of what a good-looking new toilet would look like. 新式別緻的廁所將會是這樣子
It actually processes everything down in here, and then recycles water. 底部處理廢物,水可以循環再用
Over the next four or five years, we think we can have a toilet 四、五年後的廁所
that's every bit as good as the flush toilet. 功能可以媲美抽水馬桶
You can learn a lot about what motivates Bill Gates 拜訪過蓋茨的私人辦公室
by visiting his private office. 你會找到推動他的力量何來
He showed us why he draws inspiration 他向我們講解為何會從意大利天才
from the Italian genius Leonardo da Vinci. 達文西那裡得到啟發
In 1994, Gates bought da Vinci's five-hundred-year-old notebook. 蓋茨94年買了達文西500年前筆記
He had an understanding of science that was more advanced than anybody of the time. 他的科學知識超越當時所有人
The notebook we have here is one where he's thinking about water. 這是他思考水的問題
And he's looking at how it flows when it hits barriers, 研究水遇到障礙物時怎樣流動
and it goes around, comes back together. 水繞過去,再流回來
He's actually trying to understand turbulence. 他想理解漩渦的概念
You know, how should you build a dam, how, you know, does it erode away? 怎樣興建水壩,水怎樣侵蝕
It cost thirty million dollars at auction- 筆記本用3000萬美元投得
making it the most valuable manuscript in the world. 是世上最有價值手稿
For Gates, it is priceless. 它在蓋茨心目中是無價的
It's an inspiration that one person off on their own, 他能激勵我,他孤軍作戰
with no positive feedback, nobody ever told him-- 得不到正面回應,沒有人對他說...
Yeah, right. 對
--You know, what was right or wrong. 他的想法對還是錯
That he kept pushing himself, you know, 但他不斷鞭策自己
found knowledge in itself to be a beautiful thing. 他發現知識本身是美麗的
Gates scoffs at any comparison to the great Leonardo, 蓋茨說自己不能與達文西相比
but a look around his private office reveals a man 但環顧他的辦公室可以發現到
equally obsessed with understanding his world. 他同樣沉迷於了解周遭世界
- Can I look at these? - Sure. 我可以看看嗎? 可以
- This is the weather one, meteorology. - Yeah. 這是氣象學 對
My very first course that I watched was this geology course. 我首先看的是地質學
This is a whole series on the joy of science; 這是整全的科學課程
Mathematics, Philosophy and the Real World." 數學、哲學與真實世界
Gates' collection of DVDs contains hundreds of hours of college lectures 蓋茨收藏了數百隻大學講課DVD
that this famous Harvard drop-out has watched. 當年輟學哈佛的他,如今醉心求知
The more you learn, 你越學習
the more you have a framework that the knowledge fits into. 越能將知識放在一個梗概中
When he's on the road, 每次出門
Gates--who's a speed-reader- 讀書速度極高的蓋茨
lugs around what he calls his reading bag. 總帶著他的「閱讀包包」
When he finishes a book, he posts his thoughts on his website: 每讀完一本書,便在個人網站寫
Gates Notes. 蓋茨筆記
What I'll do is, I'm-- I'm reading these books. 我這樣做...我讀許多書
- Oh, look at that. - I'll take notes. 看 我會做筆記
- Oh, these are your notes already? - Right. 這是你的筆記? 對
Look at this. 看
I love to take notes on book. 我喜愛寫閱讀筆記
So I just haven't written it up yet. 我還沒寫上網
How long will it take to read all of this? 讀完這些書需要多久?
Oh, a long time. 許久
- Thank goodness for vacations. - Yeah. 還好可以放假 對
I read a lot. 我讀許多書
But Gates isn't just reading books for pleasure. 但蓋茨讀書並非為消閑
He is determined to use his knowledge to back groundbreaking innovations. 他決意用知識來支持曠世發明
Take this high-tech zapper. 就以高科技激光槍為例
It is a laser designed to shoot down malaria-infected mosquitoes in mid-flight. 用來殺飛行中瘧疾蚊的激光槍
And Gates showed us one of his boldest, and he says, most important ventures- 蓋茨展示他最大膽、最重要的設計
a new kind of nuclear reactor. 新式核反應堆
It would burn depleted uranium, making it cleaner, safer 它燃燒貧化鈾,比現時的反應堆
and cheaper than today's reactors. 乾淨、安全和便宜
And your fuel will last for sixty years. 燃料可以有效60年
So during that entire time, you don't need to open it up, refuel it. 期間不需要打開補充燃料
You don't need to buy more fuel. 不需要買更多燃料
So there's a certain simplicity that comes with this design. 這設計非常簡單
And when could it come on stream? 幾時可以面世?
Best case would be to have a prototype around 2022. 最理想是2022年左右製成原型
Bill Gates calls himself an impatient optimist- 蓋茨說他是缺乏耐性的樂觀主義者
a description his wife Melinda says 妻子美琳達說
was accurate even when they met over twenty years ago. 20年前相識時他已是這模樣
Melinda, what did you like about him? 美琳達,你當時喜歡他甚麼?
Just his curiosity and his optimism about life 他的好奇心和樂觀的做人態度
and this belief that, you know, that you can change things. 並相信能改變世界
I mean he believed that clearly in Microsoft. 他懷著這信念成立微軟
He was changing the world with software and he knew it. 它的軟件改變世界,他是知道的
Is the curiosity a shared curiosity, or are there different curiosities? 你們的好奇對象相不相同?
Well, we both have curiosity for lots of things. 我們都對許多事物好奇
Bill, at this stage in our life, also gets more time to read than I do, 他來到這階段,閱讀時間比我多
quite honestly, with three kids in the house. 坦白說,我有三個孩子要照顧
Yeah. 對
But the great thing is Bill will go read an entire book about fertilizer. 比爾妙在會讀一本關於肥田料的書
And I can tell you even without three kids in the house, 即使不用照顧三名子女
I'm not going to read a book about fertilizer. 我也不會讀關於肥田料的書
Yeah. 對
But he loves to teach. 但他熱愛教導
And so as long as I have time, we'll spend time talking about that. 只要有時間,我們就會傾談
So what is it about a book about fertilizer? I mean seriously? 講肥田料的書究竟有何吸引之處?
Well, fertilizers are very interesting. We wouldn't- 肥田料非常有趣
we couldn't feed a few peop-- billion people would have to die 如果我們沒有發明肥田料
if we hadn't come up with fertilizer. 十億人就會死去
How do you find a balance in all this- 你怎樣平衡一切
father, chairman of a major company, 你是父親、大公司主席
a foundation, and then all these other ventures? 基金及所有其他企業主席
How does the balance come to you? 你怎樣平衡一切?
I don't mow the lawn. 我不刈草
- You found somebody to do that? - Absolutely. 找其他人來做 對
He has come a long way from that teenage prodigy obsessed with 昔日沉迷於編寫電腦密碼的少年
writing computer code. 走了許多的路
Over nearly four decades we've watched Bill Gates help lead the digital revolution 近40年我們目睹蓋茨革新數碼世界
with what he now admits was a fanatic and relentless determination. 他說只靠一腔狂熱和無止境的決心
You guys never understood, you never understood the first thing about this. 你們完全搞不懂,完全搞不懂
I'm not using this thing. 我不會用這東西
In the early years, there was a demanding guy, there was a driven guy, 你早期要求極高,魄力驚人
there was an obsessed guy. There was, some say, an arrogant guy. 極度沉迷,有人形容你夜郎自大
Have you changed? 你有改變嗎?
I'm certainly learned. 我學懂了不少
When I make a mistake, you know, and my thinking is sloppy, 每當我犯錯,思維一塌糊塗
I like to be very hard on myself Like, that is so stupid. 我會看不起自己,罵自己笨
How could you not see how those pieces fit together? 怎可能看不出箇中破綻?
And that way that you're, you know, very disciplined yourself, 這樣,你就會相當自我克制
and careful about your thinking, 慎思明辨
you don't want it to extend out to 千萬不要...
when other people may not get something quite as quickly. 因為其他人沒明白得那麼快
It's like, you know, how come you don't-- don't get this thing? 而看不起人家
Has he mellowed at all? 他有沒有變柔和了?
I-- I hope any of us in life mature, right? We all mature. 希望我們都成熟了,我們都成熟
But look, I wouldn't have married Bill if there wasn't a huge heart. 但若非他心懷若谷,我就不會嫁他
With all of the adjectives you just used about how he drove his career, 剛才你提出他事業成功的原因
which was very successful for Microsoft, 微軟非常成功
there was an enormous heart always there. 他一直是個心懷若谷的人
No question Gates has softened with age. 隨年漸長,蓋茨也變得柔和了
Just listen to how he reflected on his often tumultuous relationship 且聽他怎樣形容向來各不相讓
with the late Apple CEO Steve Jobs. 已故蘋果主席喬布斯與他的關係
He and I-- in a sense, grew up together. 我和他一同成長
We were within a year of the same age. 我們同年出生
And, you know, we were kind of naively optimistic and built big companies. 我們都樂觀得單純,建立起大公司
We achieved all of it. 成就非凡
And most of it as rivals. 雖然大部分時間在競爭
But we always retained a certain respect, communication, 但我們一直惺惺相惜,保持溝通
including even when he was sick. 在他病重期間亦然
I got to go down and-- and spend time with him. 我去他家找他
And talked about what? 你們談些甚麼?
About what we'd learned, 我們學到的東西
about families, anything. 關於家庭等等
Today Gates says he gets advice on patience and generosity 蓋茨說,現時他耐性和慷慨的榜樣
from his friend Warren Buffett-- 是他的朋友巴菲特
who seven years ago entrusted the majority of his fortune 巴氏七年前將大部分財富
to the Gates Foundation. 交給蓋茨基金打理
And from his father Bill Senior, 還有他父親比爾
a lawyer who prodded his son into giving his money away. 他是一名律師,鼓勵兒子捐出財產
You've said before, this is your hero. 你曾說過他是你的英雄
Why? 為甚麼?
Well, my dad has integrity. 我爸爸是個有骨氣的人
He's got a humble approach to things. 他對凡事十分謙遜
He's calm and wise about things. 他冷靜、有智慧
It's just a huge influence to always, you know, want to live up to a great example. 他一向是我做人的榜樣
Someone said to me, 有人曾對我說
your son may be the most influential person in the twenty-first century. 令郎可能是21世紀最具影響力的人
I can only say yes. 我同意
He's determined, 他堅定志向
as he already has proven, 過去就是最佳例證
that he can dramatically reduce the number of kids under five who die-- 他矢志大大減少5歲未足就夭折...
That's right. 對
You can't do any better than that, can you? 這是非常偉大的建樹
That's right. That's right. There's- 對,對
there's no way to be unimpressed about that. 人人都會景仰他
You couldn't be more proud. 你引以為傲
I couldn't be more proud. 我引以為傲
That is exactly true. 完全正確
Go to 60minutesovertime.com 登入60minutesovertime.com
to hear more about the great rivalry and friendship 聽蓋茨與喬布斯之間...
between Bill Gates and Steve Jobs, 亦敵亦友的故事
I'm Scott Pelley. 我是斯科特佩利
We'll be back next week with another edition of 60 MINUTES. 下星期六十分鐘時事雜誌再見
翻譯:黃曉婷 方奕鵬
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

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[English Subtitles] [60 Minutes] Bill Gates 2.0

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SophyYeh 2014 年 2 月 13 日 に公開
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    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

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  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔