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  • In 1894, Nicholas II became ruler of a Russian empire that stretched from the Baltic to the

    「代議政体を認めるつもりは決してない、 神が私に庇護を託した臣民にとって有害である」 (ニコライ2世、1904年)

  • Pacific, inhabited by 126 million people, from 194 ethnic groups.

    1894年、ニコライ2世はロシア皇帝となった。 バルト海から太平洋に至る領土を持ち、

  • It was a country in which workers and peasants lived in poverty and hardship - while Russia's

    1億2600万の人口と、194の民族を抱える 帝国の支配者である

  • elite - its imperial family and aristocracy - lived lives of gilded luxury.

    労働者と農民は貧困と重労働に苦しみ、

  • There was a long history of struggle in Russia against the injustices of the system.

    いっぽうで上流階級の皇室と貴族は 贅沢な暮らしを謳歌していた

  • And in 1905, a revolution forced the Tsar to allow the creation of a state duma, or

    ロシアでは長きに渡って、この不公平な 仕組みに抗う動きが続いてきた

  • national assembly.

    1905年の革命により、皇帝は ドゥーマ(国会)開設の承認を余儀なくされた

  • But its power was limited, and the compromise pleased neither the Tsar nor the reformers.

    しかしドゥーマの権限は狭く、この妥協は 皇帝と革命派双方に不満を残した

  • In 1914, this divided empire was plunged into fresh crisis... by world war.

    1914年、分裂した帝国は 世界大戦という新たな危機に直面する

  • World War One was a disaster for Tsarist Russia.

    「人民の信任とは一体何の話だ? その人民にこそ私の信頼を得る努力をさせろ!」 (ニコライ2世 1916年)

  • At the front, the country suffered a series of devastating defeats, while at home there

    第一次世界大戦はロシア帝国を災厄に陥れた

  • were food shortages and economic chaos.

    軍は前線で大敗北を繰り返し、

  • The Tsar was held responsible for the crisisafter all, he was now the army's commander-in-chief,

    銃後では食糧不足と経済危機が人々を襲った

  • and he was standing in the way of government reform.

    この危機の原因は皇帝にあった。

  • His German-born wife, Empress Alexandra, was even thought to be supporting Germany; while

    軍の最高司令官である 彼自身が 政治改革への障壁となっていた

  • the entire family was said to have fallen under the spell of a Siberian mystic and faith

    ドイツ生まれのアレクサンドラ皇后も 敵国ドイツを支持していると噂された

  • healer, Grigory Rasputin.

    そして家族全員がシベリアの祈祷師ラスプーチンの 魔術に取り憑かれたという悪評もあった

  • In December 1916, Rasputin was murdered by Russian aristocrats, possibly with the help

    1916年12月、ラスプーチンは ロシア貴族に殺害される

  • of British secret agents - both groups determined to end his influence over the Tsar.

    事件にはラスプーチンの影響力を懸念したイギリスの 工作員も関わっていた

  • But in the eyes of many, the damage had already been done.

    しかしすでに事態は誰の目にも 明らかなほど悪化していた

  • On 23rd February 1917, thousands of women took to the streets of the Russian capital,

    「首都が無政府化し、深刻な状況にある。 行政は機能せず、街道で銃撃戦が起こっている」 (ミハイル・ロジャンコ ドゥーマ議長)

  • Petrograd, to mark International Women's Day and protest over bread shortages.

    1917年2月23日、数千人の女性が 国際女性デーに合わせて

  • The next day they were joined on the streets by workers and students, carrying placards

    ペトログラードでデモを行ない、食糧不足に抗議した

  • that read 'Down with the Tsar!'

    翌日には労働者や学生も加わり、 「皇帝を倒せ」のプラカードを掲げた

  • Troops, ordered to put down the disorder, mutinied, and joined the protesters instead.

    鎮圧を命じられた陸軍部隊は命令を拒否し、 そのままデモに参加した

  • Tsarist officials were arrested, prisons and police stations were attacked, emblems of

    皇帝派の官憲は捕らえられ、 刑務所と警察署が襲撃され、

  • Tsarist rule smashed and burned.

    皇室の紋章は叩き壊されて燃やされた

  • The government had lost control of the capital.

    政府は首都を掌握できなくなった

  • The Tsar was told by his ministers that order could only be restored - and Russia saved

    閣僚は皇帝に対し、秩序回復と敗戦回避のためには 退位するしかないと説得する

  • from military defeat - if he gave up power.

    3月2日、ニコライ2世は退位を受け入れた

  • So on 2nd March, Nicholas agreed to abdicate.

    300年続いたロマノフ王朝は 僅か10日で終わりを迎えた

  • In just 10 days, 300 years of Romanov rule had come to an end.

    「臨時政府に実質的な権力は全くない」 (アレクサンドル・グチコフ陸海軍大臣)

  • The February Revolution had been remarkably swift and bloodless, and hopes were now high

    2月革命は速やかに、少ない犠牲で成功した

  • for the creation of a more democratic, more just Russian state.

    そして民主的で平等なロシアの建設に向けて 期待が高まっていった

  • Members of the State Duma, the national assembly, had formed a Provisional Government, which

    ドゥーマの議員が臨時政府を樹立し、

  • was to hold power until a Constituent Assembly was elected, to give Russia a new constitution.

    選挙を経た新たな議会が新憲法を制定するまで 権力を握ることになった

  • But in reality, the Provisional Government shared power with the Petrograd Soviet, a

    しかし実際には、ペトログラード・ソヴィエトも 大きな権力を持っていた

  • council elected by workers and soldiers, that controlled the capital's troops, transport

    労働者と兵士によって作られた評議会で、 首都の軍事力、交通、通信を掌握していた

  • and communications.

    ペトログラード・ソヴィエトを構成する 社会革命党とメンシェビキは臨時政府より過激だった

  • The Petrograd Soviet, dominated by the Socialist Revolutionary Party and the Marxist Menshevik

    しかし彼らも臨時政府の 戦争継続方針を支持しており、

  • Party, was much more radical than the Provisional Government... yet it supported the Government's

    連合国としての責任があると考えていた

  • decision to continue the war, and honour the commitments that Russia had made to the Allies.

    この決断が運命を分け、弱小党だった ボリシェビキの思うつぼになるのである

  • It was a fateful decision, that ultimately played into the hands of one of the smaller

    指導者のレーニンは16年間の追放から帰還し、 「帝国主義者の戦争」を痛烈に批判した

  • parties.... the Bolsheviks.

    さらに、地主の土地をただちに取り上げて 農民に再分配すること、

  • Their leader, Vladimir Lenin, recently returned from 16 years in exile, bitterly opposed the

    そして「ブルジョア」の臨時政府から 全国のソヴィエトへと権力を移譲することを要求した

  • 'imperialist war'.

    ボルシェビキは計画を シンプルなスローガンにまとめた

  • He also demanded the immediate redistribution of land from rich landowners to peasants;

    「パン・平和・土地」である

  • and the transfer of power from the 'bourgeois' Provisional Government to the people's Soviets,

    ロシアの軍事的、経済的混乱が深まるに連れて この訴えは次々と拡大していった

  • or councils, that were springing up across Russia.

    「我々の戦術は絶対不支持である! 臨時政府は一切支持しない」 (レーニン)

  • The Bolshevik programme was summed up in a simple slogan, 'Bread, Peace and Land'.

    6月、ロシア軍の新たな攻勢は 40万の損害を出して失敗に終わる

  • And as Russia's economic and military crisis deepened, its appeal to the masses grew and

    大規模な脱走が起こり、軍の士気と規律は崩壊した

  • grew.

    7月、ペトログラードの兵士と水兵が反抗する

  • In June, a new Russian military offensive ended in disaster, with 400,000 Russian casualties,

    彼らはボルシェヴィキ後援の労働者たちと ともに街道に出た

  • massive desertions, and the collapse of army morale and discipline.

    しかし臨時政府の部隊が 発砲してデモ隊を蹴散らした

  • In July, soldiers and sailors in Petrograd mutinied.

    警察の取締りが始まり、レフ・トロツキーを含む ボルシェヴィキの幹部は逮捕された

  • They were joined in the streets by workers, with Bolshevik support.

    レーニンはスターリンの助けを得て フィンランドに逃れた

  • But troops loyal to the Provisional Government opened fire on the protestors, and dispersed

    コンスタンティン・イワノフの偽名と 偽造旅券を使った

  • the crowds.

    弁舌家の社会主義者、ケレンスキーが 新首相に就任する

  • A police crackdown followed, leading to the arrest of several Bolshevik leaders, including

    ロシアを無政府状態から救う男として歓迎された

  • Leon Trotsky, while Lenin, with the help of Josef Stalin, fled to Finland, travelling

    「レーニン筆頭のドイツのスパイ連中を吊して ソヴィエトを滅ぼせ」 (コルニロフ将軍)

  • with forged papers under the name of Konstantin Ivanov...

    陸軍最高司令官コルニロフ将軍は、 ロシアの戦争遂行能力の低下は―

  • A socialist, and stirring orator, named Alexander Kerensky, became Russia's new Prime Minister,

    国内の混乱と、レーニンを始めとした 「ドイツのスパイ」の破壊工作が原因だと考えた

  • and was hailed as the man who would save Russia from anarchy.

    そして8月、「秩序回復」を目指して ペトログラードへの進撃を開始する

  • The army's commander-in-chief, General Kornilov, believed Russia's war effort was being undermined

    このクーデターでは、ボルシェビキが 首都防衛の主要な役割を果たした

  • by chaos at home, and deliberately sabotaged by men like Lenin, whom he declared a German

    トロツキーが刑務所から釈放され、 そのカリスマを活かして

  • spy.

    ボルシェビキの民兵「赤衛隊」を 市内の要所に配置した

  • So in August, he ordered his men to march on Petrograd, to 'restore order'.

    ボルシェビキ支持の鉄道労働者がストを起こし、 コルニロフ軍の移動を妨害した

  • Bolsheviks played a leading role in the city's defence against this attempted military coup.

    やがてコルニロフの兵士たちは 敵側に寝返るか、家に帰った

  • Their most brilliant organiser, Leon Trotsky, was released from prison, and sent armed Bolshevik

    このクーデター未遂でボルシェビキは 革命の守護者として名を上げた

  • militias, the 'Red Guards', to defend key points in the city.

    そして9月下旬にはペトログラード・ソヴィエトの 多数派となった

  • Strikes by railway workers, many of them Bolshevik supporters, prevented Kornilov from moving

    10月、レーニンは時が来たと判断する

  • his men by rail, and his soldiers began to switch sides, or simply go home.

    フィンランドからペトログラードへ秘密裏に戻り、 権力奪取の準備を始めた

  • The Kornilov Affair cast the Bolsheviks as saviours of the revolution.

    「ボルシェビキが多数派になるまで待つなど甘い。待った革命など存在しない。 今権力を手にしなければ歴史は我々を決して許さないだろう」(レーニン)

  • And by the end of September, they'd gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet.

    10月25日、ボルシェビキは行動を起こした

  • In October, Lenin decided the time had come.

    赤衛隊と支持派の部隊が首都の要所を占拠する。 その夜、臨時政府のある冬宮に突入した

  • He secretly returned from Finland to Petrograd, and began preparing to seize power.

    この事件は後に、ボリシェビキのプロパガンダと―

  • On 25th October, the Bolsheviks made their move: Red Guards and loyal troops seized key

    名監督セルゲイ・エイゼンシュテインの映画によって 有名になった

  • points around the capital, and that night they stormed the Provisional Government's

    ケレンスキーは辛くも逮捕を逃れ、 首都を脱出した

  • headquarters at the Winter Palacean event later immortalised by Bolshevik propaganda,

    翌日、第2回ソヴィエト大会において レーニンは臨時政府の転覆を発表した

  • and the great Soviet filmmaker, Sergei Eisenstein.

    「我々に敵分子や白衛隊を撃つ用意が無かったら、 革命はどうなっていた? 単なる言葉と一杯の粥ほどの価値しかなかっただろう」(レーニン)

  • Kerensky fled the city at the last moment, narrowly avoiding capture, and the next day,

    その後数か月間、ボルシェビキは権力を強化し―

  • at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Lenin announced the overthrow of the Provisional

    同時に外国から援助を受けた反革命の白軍と 激しい内戦を繰り広げた

  • Government.

    白軍の一部はニコライ2世を復位させようとしていた

  • The following months saw the Bolsheviks consolidate their hold on power, while fighting a brutal

    退位の後、ニコライ2世と家族は首都郊外の ツァールスコエ・セロに軟禁されていた

  • civil war against counter-revolutionary, or 'White Russian', forces, who had foreign support.

    そこでは庭仕事や娯楽に時間を費やして過ごした

  • Some Whites hoped to put Tsar Nicholas back on the throne.

    1917年夏、一家はシベリアのトボリスクに 移され、知事の館に軟禁された

  • After his abdication, Nicholas and his family had been held under guard at Tsarskoye Selo,

    翌年の春、ボルシェビキは一家を エカテリンブルクへ移した

  • outside Petrograd, where they occupied themselves with gardening and other diversions.

    1918年7月、白軍が市街に迫ると ボルシェビキは一家全員を地下室に集めた

  • In summer 1917 the family was sent to Tobolsk, in Siberia, where they lived under house arrest

    皇帝、后、息子アレクセイ、4人の娘、オルガ、 タチアナ、マリア、アナスタシアと4人の従者である

  • in the Governor's Mansion.

    そして全員を銃殺した

  • The following spring, the Bolsheviks had the family moved to Yekaterinburg.

    ロシア内戦は20世紀最大級の事件であった

  • In July 1918, as White forces approached the city, Bolshevik soldiers gathered the whole

    200万人が戦死し、チフスと飢餓によって 900万人以上の民間人が死亡した

  • family in a cellarthe Tsar, his wife, their son Alexei, their 4 daughters, Olga,

    1921年後半、ボルシェビキが内戦に勝利した

  • Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, as well as 4 servants - and executed them all.

    そしてレーニンの強力な指導の下、 社会主義秩序の建設がはじまった

  • Russia's civil war was one of the 20th century's most devastating events.

    1922年、ソヴィエト連邦が成立。 その後の第二次世界大戦でナチスドイツを破り、

  • An estimated 2 million soldiers lost their lives, while a typhus epidemic and famine

    世界の超大国へと成長する

  • claimed the lives of a further 9 million civilians.

    しかし反対意見や勢力は容赦なく潰される 一党独裁国家であり続けた

  • By the end of 1921, the Bolsheviks had emerged victorious, and under Lenin's determined and

    2月革命で花開いた民主主義への希望と熱狂は―

  • uncompromising leadership, set about building a new socialist order.

    ボルシェビキの10月革命によって打ち消され、 数十年の歳月を耐えなければならなかった

  • The Soviet Union, created in 1922, emerged as a world superpower following the defeat

    Bridgeman Images は芸術、文化、歴史の 画像や動画を多岐にわたり提供しています

  • of Nazi Germany in World War Two.

    世界の有名な博物館やコレクションや芸術家の ものを掲載しており、

  • But it would always remain a single party state, where all opposition or dissent was

    テレビや映画で公開、宣伝に使用するための 研究や著作権関連の相談にも対応します

  • ruthlessly suppressed.

    詳しくはHPをご覧ください

  • Those brief hopes for Russian democracy, that flowered amid the euphoria of the February

    Epic History TV はパトロンからの 寄付によって成り立っています

  • Revolution, were extinguished by the Bolshevik October Revolution, and put beyond reach for

    詳しくはリンクからアクセスしてください

  • decades to come.

  • In 1894, Nicholas II became ruler of a Russian empire that stretched from the Baltic to the

  • Pacific, inhabited by 126 million people, from 194 ethnic groups.

  • It was a country in which workers and peasants lived in poverty and hardship - while Russia's

  • elite - its imperial family and aristocracy - lived lives of gilded luxury.

  • There was a long history of struggle in Russia against the injustices of the system.

  • And in 1905, a revolution forced the Tsar to allow the creation of a state duma, or

  • national assembly.

  • But its power was limited, and the compromise pleased neither the Tsar nor the reformers.

  • In 1914, this divided empire was plunged into fresh crisis... by world war.

  • World War One was a disaster for Tsarist Russia.

  • At the front, the country suffered a series of devastating defeats, while at home there

  • were food shortages and economic chaos.

  • The Tsar was held responsible for the crisisafter all, he was now the army's commander-in-chief,

  • and he was standing in the way of government reform. His German-born wife, Empress Alexandra,

  • was even thought to be supporting Germany; while the entire family was said to have fallen

  • under the spell of a Siberian mystic and faith healer, Grigory Rasputin.

  • In December 1916, Rasputin was murdered by Russian aristocrats, possibly with the help

  • of British secret agents - both groups determined to end his influence over the Tsar. But in

  • the eyes of many, the damage had already been done.

  • On 23rd February 1917, thousands of women took to the streets of the Russian capital,

  • Petrograd, to mark International Women's Day and protest over bread shortages.

  • The next day they were joined on the streets by workers and students, carrying placards

  • that read 'Down with the Tsar!'

  • Troops, ordered to put down the disorder, mutinied, and joined the protesters instead.

  • Tsarist officials were arrested, prisons and police stations were attacked, emblems of

  • Tsarist rule smashed and burned.

  • The government had lost control of the capital.

  • The Tsar was told by his ministers that order could only be restored - and Russia saved

  • from military defeat - if he gave up power.

  • So on 2nd March, Nicholas agreed to abdicate.

  • In just 10 days, 300 years of Romanov rule had come to an end.

  • The February Revolution had been remarkably swift and bloodless, and hopes were now high

  • for the creation of a more democratic, more just Russian state.

  • Members of the State Duma, the national assembly, had formed a Provisional Government, which

  • was to hold power until a Constituent Assembly was elected, to give Russia a new constitution.

  • But in reality, the Provisional Government shared power with the Petrograd Soviet, a

  • council elected by workers and soldiers, that controlled the capital's troops, transport

  • and communications.

  • The Petrograd Soviet, dominated by the Socialist Revolutionary Party and the Marxist Menshevik

  • Party, was much more radical than the Provisional Government... yet it supported the Government's

  • decision to continue the war, and honour the commitments that Russia had made to the Allies.

  • It was a fateful decision, that ultimately played into the hands of one of the smaller

  • parties.... the Bolsheviks.

  • Their leader, Vladimir Lenin, recently returned from 16 years in exile, bitterly opposed the

  • 'imperialist war'.

  • He also demanded the immediate redistribution of land from rich landowners to peasants;

  • and the transfer of power from the 'bourgeois' Provisional Government to the people's Soviets,

  • or councils, that were springing up across Russia.

  • The Bolshevik programme was summed up in a simple slogan, 'Bread, Peace and Land'.

  • And as Russia's economic and military crisis deepened, its appeal to the masses grew and

  • grew.

  • In June, a new Russian military offensive ended in disaster, with 400,000 Russian casualties,

  • massive desertions, and the collapse of army morale and discipline.

  • In July, soldiers and sailors in Petrograd mutinied. They were joined in the streets

  • by workers, with Bolshevik support. But troops loyal to the Provisional Government opened

  • fire on the protestors, and dispersed the crowds.

  • A police crackdown followed, leading to the arrest of several Bolshevik leaders, including

  • Leon Trotsky, while Lenin, with the help of Josef Stalin, fled to Finland, travelling

  • with forged papers under the name of Konstantin Ivanov...

  • A socialist, and stirring orator, named Alexander Kerensky, became Russia's new Prime Minister,

  • and was hailed as the man who would save Russia from anarchy.

  • The army's commander-in-chief, General Kornilov, believed Russia's war effort was being undermined

  • by chaos at home, and deliberately sabotaged by men like Lenin, whom he declared a German

  • spy.

  • So in August, he ordered his men to march on Petrograd, to 'restore order'.

  • Bolsheviks played a leading role in the city's defence against this attempted military coup.

  • Their most brilliant organiser, Leon Trotsky, was released from prison, and sent armed Bolshevik

  • militias, the 'Red Guards', to defend key points in the city.

  • Strikes by railway workers, many of them Bolshevik supporters, prevented Kornilov from moving

  • his men by rail, and his soldiers began to switch sides, or simply go home.

  • The Kornilov Affair cast the Bolsheviks as saviours of the revolution.

  • And by the end of September, they'd gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet.

  • In October, Lenin decided the time had come. He secretly returned from Finland to Petrograd,

  • and began preparing to seize power.

  • On 25th October, the Bolsheviks made their move: Red Guards and loyal troops seized key

  • points around the capital, and that night they stormed the Provisional Government's

  • headquarters at the Winter Palacean event later immortalised by Bolshevik propaganda,

  • and the great Soviet filmmaker, Sergei Eisenstein.

  • Kerensky fled the city at the last moment, narrowly avoiding capture, and the next day,

  • at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Lenin announced the overthrow of the Provisional

  • Government.

  • Lenin: “If we are not ready to shoot a saboteur and a White Guard, what sort of Revolution

  • is that? Nothing but talk and a bowl of mush.”

  • The following months saw the Bolsheviks consolidate their hold on power, while fighting a brutal

  • civil war against counter-revolutionary, or 'White Russian', forces, who had foreign support.

  • Some Whites hoped to put Tsar Nicholas back on the throne.

  • After his abdication, Nicholas and his family had been held under guard at Tsarkoye Selo,

  • outside Petrograd, where they occupied themselves with gardening and other diversions.

  • In summer 1917 the family was sent to Tobolsk, in Siberia, where they lived under house arrest

  • in the Governor's Mansion.

  • The following spring, the Bolsheviks had the family moved to Yekaterinburg.

  • In July 1918, as White forces approached the city, Bolshevik soldiers gathered the whole

  • family in a cellarthe Tsar, his wife, their son Alexei, their 4 daughters, Olga,

  • Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, as well as 4 servants - and executed them all.

  • Russia's civil war was one of the 20th century's most devastating events. An estimated 2 million

  • soldiers lost their lives, while a typhus epidemic and famine claimed the lives of a

  • further 9 million civilians.

  • By the end of 1921, the Bolsheviks had emerged victorious, and under Lenin's determined and

  • uncompromising leadership, set about building a new socialist order.

  • The Soviet Union, created in 1922, emerged as a world superpower following the defeat

  • of Nazi Germany in World War Two.

  • But it would always remain a single party state, where all opposition or dissent was

  • ruthlessly suppressed.

  • Those brief hopes for Russian democracy, that flowered amid the euphoria of the February

  • Revolution, were extinguished by the Bolshevik October Revolution, and put beyond reach for

  • decades to come.

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In 1894, Nicholas II became ruler of a Russian empire that stretched from the Baltic to the

「代議政体を認めるつもりは決してない、 神が私に庇護を託した臣民にとって有害である」 (ニコライ2世、1904年)

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B2 中上級 日本語 革命 皇帝 ロシア 政府 権力 首都

ロシア革命1917年 (The Russian Revolution 1917)

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    蔡文彬 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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