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  • Alright, so I want you to imagine that you get a text from a friend, and it reads ...

    翻訳: Riaki Poništ 校正: Misaki Sato

  • "You will NOT believe what just happened. I'm SO MAD right now!"

    友達から こんなメッセージが 来たとします

  • So you do the dutiful thing as a friend, and you ask for details.

    「ありえないことが起きた マジふざけんなっての!」

  • And they tell you a story about what happened to them

    いちおう友達として 詳しく話を聞くと

  • at the gym or at work or on their date last night.

    スポーツジムや職場や 前の晩のデートでのことを

  • And you listen and you try to understand why they're so mad.


  • Maybe even secretly judge whether or not they should be so mad.

    あなたは話を聞き 怒りの理由を 理解しようとします

  • (Laughter)

    そこまで怒ることなのか 密かに疑問に思うかもしれません

  • And maybe you even offer some suggestions.


  • Now, in that moment, you are doing essentially what I get to do every day,


  • because I'm an anger researcher,

    こういうことを 私は毎日しています

  • and as an anger researcher, I spend a good part of my professional life --


  • who am I kidding, also my personal life --

    職業上 勤務中は たくさんの時間を費し—

  • studying why people get mad.

    それどころか プライベートでも—

  • I study the types of thoughts they have when they get mad,


  • and I even study what they do when they get mad,

    人は怒っているとき どんなことを考え

  • whether it's getting into fights or breaking things,


  • or even yelling at people in all caps on the internet.

    乱闘を始めるのか モノに当たるのか

  • (Laughter)

    ネットに全部大文字で書き込んで 八つ当たりするのか

  • And as you can imagine,


  • when people hear I'm an anger researcher,

    また 想像つくと思いますが

  • they want to talk to me about their anger,


  • they want to share with me their anger stories.


  • And it's not because they need a therapist,

    腹が立ったことについて 話したがります

  • though that does sometimes happen,


  • it's really because anger is universal.


  • It's something we all feel and it's something they can relate to.

    怒りは万国共通だからに 他なりません

  • We've been feeling it since the first few months of life,

    誰でも感じるものですし 誰でも理解できるものです

  • when we didn't get what we wanted in our cries of protests,

    生後数ヶ月の頃に すでにあった感情です

  • things like, "What do you mean you won't pick up the rattle, Dad,

    欲求が満たされないと 泣いて訴えたでしょう

  • I want it!"

    「パパ ガラガラを取ってくれないって 何のつもり?

  • (Laughter)


  • We feel it throughout our teenage years, as my mom can certainly attest to with me.


  • Sorry, Mom.

    怒りは 10代にかけても続きます 私の場合 母が証人です

  • We feel it to the very end.

    ごめんね お母さん

  • In fact, anger has been with us at some of the worst moments of our lives.

    そして最期の最期まで 感じるものです

  • It's a natural and expected part of our grief.

    事実 怒りは私たちの人生で 一番辛いときにも起こります

  • But it's also been with us in some of the best moments of our lives,

    嘆きや悲しみの一環として 自然と そして当然感じるものです

  • with those special occasions like weddings and vacations

    ひいては 人生最高のときでさえ 起こるものです

  • often marred by these everyday frustrations --

    結婚や休暇のような 特別な節目においても

  • bad weather, travel delays --

    ありふれた不満のせいで 台無しになったりします

  • that feel horrible in the moment,


  • but then are ultimately forgotten when things go OK.

    起こった瞬間は ものすごく嫌ですが

  • I have a lot of conversations with people about their anger

    いったん何とかなれば 記憶に残らないものです

  • and it's through those conversations that I've learned that many people,

    色々な人と 怒りについて たくさん話をしますが

  • and I bet many people in this room right now,

    その会話を通じて わかってきたのは 多くの人が―

  • you see anger as a problem.

    会場の皆さんも きっとそうでしょうが―

  • You see the way it interferes in your life,

    怒りを問題だと みなしていることです

  • the way it damages relationships, maybe even the ways it's scary.


  • And while I get all of that, I see anger a little differently,

    人間関係を壊されるとか 怖いとさえ感じるからかもしれません

  • and today, I want to tell you something really important

    どれも気持ちはわかりますが 私の観点は少し違います

  • about your anger, and it's this:

    そして今日は 怒りについて

  • anger is a powerful and healthy force in your life.


  • It's good that you feel it.

    怒りは人生において 健全な力であり 力強い味方だということです

  • You need to feel it.

    怒りを感じるのは 良いことであり

  • But to understand all that, we actually have to back up


  • and talk about why we get mad in the first place.

    以上を理解するには 少し話を戻して

  • A lot of this goes back to the work of an anger researcher

    そもそも なぜ人は怒るのかという 話をしなければなりません

  • named Dr. Jerry Deffenbacher, who wrote about this back in 1996

    大部分はジェリー・ディッフェンバッカー博士 という怒り研究家が

  • in a book chapter on how to deal with problematic anger.


  • Now, for most of us, and I bet most of you,

    たちの悪いタイプの怒りの対処方法が 元になっています

  • it feels as simple as this:

    たいていの人 そして 皆さんにとっても

  • I get mad when I'm provoked.


  • You hear it in the language people use.

    刺激されると怒るのだ と

  • They say things like,


  • "It makes me so mad when people drive this slow,"

    「こういうノロノロ運転 本当イラつくんだよな」

  • or, "I got mad because she left the milk out again."

    「あいつ また牛乳出しっぱなしでさ 頭に来たよ」

  • Or my favorite,

    極めつけは 「私は怒りで困ってはいない

  • "I don't have an anger problem -- people just need to stop messing with me."

    周りが私の気に障ることを してこなきゃいいだけだ」

  • (Laughter)


  • Now, in the spirit of better understanding those types of provocations,

    この種の刺激についての 理解を深めるために

  • I ask a lot of people, including my friends and colleagues and even family,

    友人 同僚 さらには家族も含め たくさんの人に話を聞きました

  • "What are the things that really get to you?

    「どんなことに カチンと来るのか

  • What makes you mad?"


  • By the way, now is a good time to point out one of the advantages

    ところで ちょうどいい機会だから 言っておきますが

  • of being an anger researcher

    この仕事をしてて 得したと思うことの1つが

  • is that I've spent more than a decade generating a comprehensive list

    「同僚の神経を逆なでする方法 完全リスト」を

  • of all the things that really irritate my colleagues.


  • Just in case I need it.


  • (Laughter)


  • But their answers are fascinating,

    とにかく 興味深い回答が 集まりました

  • because they say things like,


  • "when my sports team loses,"


  • "people who chew too loudly."


  • That is surprisingly common, by the way.

    ちなみに 信じられないくらい よくある答えです

  • "People who walk too slowly," that one's mine.

    「歩くのが遅すぎる人」 これは私も同感です

  • And of course, "roundabouts."


  • Roundabouts --


  • (Laughter)


  • I can tell you honestly, there is no rage like roundabout rage.

    冗談抜きで 環状交差点ほど 運転していてイラつく場所はありません

  • (Laughter)


  • Sometimes their answers aren't minor at all.

    どうでもいいなんて言えない 原因もあり

  • Sometimes they talk about racism and sexism and bullying

    人種差別や性差別やいじめや 環境破壊といった

  • and environmental destruction -- big, global problems we all face.

    人類全体が直面する地球規模の問題に 憤るという人もいます

  • But sometimes,

    しかし 時に

  • their answers are very specific, maybe even oddly specific.

    非常に特殊な むしろ珍答ともいえるものも

  • "That wet line you get across your shirt


  • when you accidentally lean against the counter of a public bathroom."

    公衆トイレで洗面台に うっかりもたれかかったときのアレ」

  • (Laughter)


  • Super gross, right?


  • (Laughter)


  • Or "Flash drives: there's only two ways to plug them in,

    「USBメモリだよ 入れる方向は2通りしかないのに

  • so why does it always take me three tries?"


  • (Laughter)


  • Now whether it's minor or major, whether it's general or specific,

    事の大小や 一般的な理由か 特殊な理由かにかかわらず

  • we can look at these examples


  • and we can tease out some common themes.


  • We get angry in situations that are unpleasant,

    人が怒りを覚えるのは 不快な状況や

  • that feel unfair, where our goals are blocked,

    不公平に感じる状況 目標達成が妨げられる状況

  • that could have been avoided, and that leave us feeling powerless.

    避けられたかもしれない状況 自分が無力に感じる状況

  • This is a recipe for anger.


  • But you can also tell

    しかし そこで覚える感情は

  • that anger is probably not the only thing we're feeling in these situations.


  • Anger doesn't happen in a vacuum.


  • We can feel angry at the same time that we're scared or sad,

    私たちが怒りを感じるとき 恐怖や悲しみなど

  • or feeling a host of other emotions.

    他の様々な感情を 伴うことがあります

  • But here's the thing:

    ただし 怒りとは 少なくとも

  • these provocations -- they aren't making us mad.

    刺激単体が 引き起こすものではありません

  • At least not on their own,


  • and we know that, because if they were,

    でないと 誰もが同じ理由で 腹を立てないといけなくなります

  • we'd all get angry over the same things, and we don't.

    腹が立つ理由は 私とあなたでは異なります

  • The reasons I get angry are different than the reasons you get angry,

    ということは 他にも何かあるはずです

  • so there's got to be something else going on.


  • What is that something else?

    その人が刺激を受けた瞬間にしていることや 感じていることが影響するそうです

  • Well, we know what we're doing and feeling at the moment of that provocation matters.

    「怒る前の段階」といって 空腹だったり 疲れていたり

  • We call this the pre-anger state -- are you hungry, are you tired,

    何か心配があったり 時間に遅れそうになっていたり

  • are you anxious about something else, are you running late for something?


  • When you're feeling those things,

    その分だけ 刺激を強く感じるのです

  • those provocations feel that much worse.

    でも 一番の鍵になるのは 刺激そのものでも

  • But what matters most is not the provocation,


  • it's not the pre-anger state, it's this:


  • it's how we interpret that provocation,

    自分の境遇の中で どう受け取るか なのです

  • it's how we make sense of it in our lives.

    人は 自分に何かが起きると

  • When something happens to us,

    まず 判断を下します 良いことか悪いことか

  • we first decide, is this good or bad?

    公平か不公平か 非難したり 罰すべきことか

  • Is it fair or unfair, is it blameworthy, is it punishable?

    これが「一次評価」です 出来事そのものを査定します

  • That's primary appraisal, it's when you evaluate the event itself.

    自らの境遇において 何を意味するのかを判断し

  • We decide what it means in the context of our lives

    次に どの程度ひどいことか 判断します

  • and once we've done that, we decide how bad it is.


  • That's secondary appraisal.

    「これまでの人生最悪 と言うべき出来事か

  • We say, "Is this the worst thing that's ever happened,

    我慢できることか」 という判断です

  • or can I cope with this?

    例えば 車でどこかに 向かっていると想像してください

  • Now, to illustrate that, I want you to imagine you are driving somewhere.


  • And before I go any further, I should tell you,


  • if I were an evil genius

    あなたを怒らせる状況を 仕立てあげたいなら

  • and I wanted to create a situation that was going to make you mad,

    ほぼ間違いなく 車の運転中を選びます

  • that situation would look a lot like driving.


  • (Laughter)


  • It's true.

    どこかへ向かっていることが 大前提になるので

  • You are, by definition, on your way somewhere,

    渋滞 他の車 道路工事など 途中で出くわす ありとあらゆることが

  • so everything that happens -- traffic, other drivers, road construction --


  • it feels like it's blocking your goals.

    法で定められた交通ルールや 暗黙のルールまでが

  • There are all these written and unwritten rules of the road,

    日常的に 目の前で 破られています

  • and those rules are routinely violated right in front of you,


  • usually without consequence.


  • And who's violating those rules?

    二度と会うこともない 匿名の誰かです

  • Anonymous others, people you will never see again,

    怒りの矛先を向けるのには もってこいです

  • making them a very easy target for your wrath.


  • (Laughter)

    とにかく あなたは車の運転中 よって怒る準備は万端

  • So you're driving somewhere, thus teed up to be angry,

    そんなとき すぐ前の車が 法定速度よりずいぶん遅く走っています

  • and the person in front of you is driving well below the speed limit.


  • And it's frustrating

    ノロノロ運転の理由を こちらは知りようがないからです

  • because you can't really see why they're driving so slow.


  • That's primary appraisal.

    状況を見て「ひどいな 非難に値する」と判断します

  • You've looked at this and you've said it's bad and it's blameworthy.


  • But maybe you also decide it's not that big a deal.

    「別に急いでないし どうでもいいか」と 判断するかもしれません

  • You're not in a hurry, doesn't matter.

    これが「二次評価」です 腹は立ちません

  • That's secondary appraisal -- you don't get angry.

    しかし これが就職面接に 向かう途中だったとしましょう

  • But now imagine you're on your way to a job interview.


  • What that person is doing, it hasn't changed, right?

    一次評価の結果は変わりません 非難に値するひどいことだと

  • So primary appraisal doesn't change; still bad, still blameworthy.

    でも あなた自身の余裕が 確実に違います

  • But your ability to cope with it sure does.

    一転して 今度は

  • Because all of a sudden,


  • you're going to be late to that job interview.


  • All of a sudden,


  • you are not going to get your dream job,


  • the one that was going to give you piles and piles of money.


  • (Laughter)

    理想の仕事が 誰かに取られてしまい

  • Somebody else is going to get your dream job


  • and you're going to be broke.


  • You're going to be destitute.

    もう諦めて 引き返そうか 実家に戻ろうかな

  • Might as well stop now, turn around, move in with your parents.


  • (Laughter)


  • Why?


  • "Because of this person in front of me.

    いや 人じゃない 鬼だ

  • This is not a person, this is a monster."


  • (Laughter)

    俺の人生を台無しにするためだけに やって来た鬼だ と

  • And this monster is here just to ruin your life.


  • (Laughter)

    さて この思考の流れを

  • Now that thought process,

    「破局的思考」といいます 物事を最悪の方向に解釈することです

  • it's called catastrophizing, the one where we make the worst of things.

    怒りが慢性化した人に 最もよくあるタイプの考え方です

  • And it's one of the primary types of thoughts that we know


  • is associated with chronic anger.


  • But there's a couple of others.

    怒っている人は理由を 無関係なものに転嫁する傾向があり

  • Misattributing causation.


  • Angry people tend to put blame where it doesn't belong.


  • Not just on people,


  • but actually inanimate objects as well.

    車の鍵が見つからない時 こんなことを言ったんじゃないですか

  • And if you think that sound ridiculous,


  • think about the last time you lost your car keys and you said,

    鍵は自分で勝手に 逃げ出すものですからね

  • "Where did those car keys go?"


  • Because you know they ran off on their own.

    過度に一般化する傾向もあります 「いつも」「絶対」「毎回」が口癖です

  • (Laughter)


  • They tend to overgeneralize, they use words like "always,"


  • "never," "every," "this always happens to me,"

    「ここに来る途中 信号という信号が赤だった」

  • "I never get what I want"

    他人より自分の欲求を優先させる 「わがまま」もあります

  • or "I hit every stoplight on the way here today."

    「あいつがノロノロ運転してる 理由なんか知るか

  • Demandingness: they put their own needs ahead of the needs of others:

    俺が面接に間に合うように スピード上げるか 道を譲れよな」

  • "I don't care why this person is driving so slow,

    おしまいは 「怒りをかき立てるレッテル貼り」

  • they need to speed up or move over so I can get to this job interview."

    他人をバカ アホ 鬼などと呼ばわり

  • And finally, inflammatory labeling.

    この場では口に出してはいけない言葉が 軒並み飛び出すことも

  • They call people fools, idiots, monsters,


  • or a whole bunch of things I've been told I'm not allowed to say

    長い間 心理学では このような思考を

  • during this TED Talk.

    「認知のゆがみ」「理不尽な思い込み」 などと呼んできました

  • (Laughter)

    確かに 理不尽なものもあります

  • So for a long time,

    まあ ほとんどの場合そうです

  • psychologists have referred to these as cognitive distortions

    しかし 時には 筋の通った怒りもあります

  • or even irrational beliefs.


  • And yeah, sometimes they are irrational.

    残忍で利己的な人が 存在しますし

  • Maybe even most of the time.

    ひどい扱いを受けたときは 怒っていいどころか

  • But sometimes, these thoughts are totally rational.


  • There is unfairness in the world.

    今日のトークから 憶えて帰ってほしいことを1つ挙げるなら

  • There are cruel, selfish people,

    怒りという感情が 私たちに備わっているのは

  • and it's not only OK to be angry when we're treated poorly,

    私たちの祖先が 人間になる前も なった後も 怒りのおかげで

  • it's right to be angry when we're treated poorly.


  • If there's one thing I want you to remember from my talk today, it's this:


  • your anger exists in you as an emotion

    怒りは不当な物事の存在を 知らせてくれます

  • because it offered your ancestors, both human and nonhuman,


  • with an evolutionary advantage.


  • Just as your fear alerts you to danger,

    さらに怒りは 不当な物事に 立ち向かう原動力にもなります

  • your anger alerts you to injustice.

    ここ最近 腹を立てた時のことを 思い出してください

  • It's one of the ways your brain communicates to you


  • that you have had enough.

    呼吸が荒くなり 汗をかき始めたでしょう

  • What's more, it energizes you to confront that injustice.


  • Think for a second about the last time you got mad.

    「闘争・逃走本能」としても 知られており

  • Your heart rate increased.

    これが作動することで 対応する力が湧くのです

  • Your breathing increased, you started to sweat.


  • That's your sympathetic nervous system,

    同時に 消化も遅くなります エネルギーを節約するためです

  • otherwise known as your fight-or-flight system,


  • kicking in to offer you the energy you need to respond.

    手足の隅々に血液を送るために 血管も広がります

  • And that's just the stuff you noticed.


  • At the same time, your digestive system slowed down so you could conserve energy.

    どれも 現代の人類に受け継がれた 複雑な生理反応の一部です

  • That's why your mouth went dry.

    人類の祖先が 厳しい大自然の力に

  • And your blood vessels dilated to get blood to your extremities.

    立ち向かう際に 役立ってきたからです