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  • Why are transgender people suddenly everywhere?

  • (Laughter)

  • As a trans activist, I get this question a lot.

  • Keep in mind, less than one percent of American adults

  • openly identify as trans.

  • According to a recent GLAAD survey, about 16 percent of non-trans Americans

  • claim to know a trans person in real life.

  • So for the other 84 percent, this may seem like a new topic.

  • But trans people are not new.

  • Gender variance is older than you think,

  • and trans people are part of that legacy.

  • From central Africa to South America to the Pacific Islands and beyond,

  • there have been populations who recognize multiple genders,

  • and they go way back.

  • The hijra of India and Pakistan, for example,

  • have been cited as far back as 2,000 years ago in the Kama Sutra.

  • Indigenous American nations each have their own terms,

  • but most share the umbrella term \"two-spirit.\"

  • They saw gender-variant people

  • as shamans and healers in their communities,

  • and it wasn't until the spread of colonialism

  • that they were taught to think otherwise.

  • Now, in researching trans history,

  • we look for both trans people and trans practices.

  • Take, for example, the women who presented as men

  • so they could fight in the US Civil War.

  • After the war, most resumed their lives as women,

  • but some, like Albert Cashier, continued to live as men.

  • Albert was eventually confined to an asylum

  • and forced to wear a dress for the rest of his life.

  • (Sighs)

  • Around 1895, a group of self-described androgynes

  • formed the Cercle Hermaphroditos.

  • Their mission was to unite for defense against the world's bitter persecution.

  • And in doing that, they became one of the earliest trans support groups.

  • By the '40s and '50s, medical researchers were starting to study trans medicine,

  • but they were aided by their trans patients,

  • like Louise Lawrence, a trans woman who had corresponded extensively

  • with people who had been arrested for public cross-dressing.

  • She introduced sexual researchers like Alfred Kinsey

  • to a massive trans network.

  • Other early figures would follow,

  • like Virginia Prince, Reed Erickson and the famous Christine Jorgensen,

  • who made headlines with her very public transition in 1952.

  • But while white trans suburbanites were forming their own support networks,

  • many trans people of color had to carve their own path.

  • Some, like Miss Major Griffin-Gracy, walked in drag balls.

  • Others were the so-called \"street queens,\"

  • who were often targeted by police for their gender expression

  • and found themselves on the forefront of seminal events

  • in the LGBT rights movement.

  • This brings us to the riots at Cooper Do-nuts in 1959,

  • Compton's Cafeteria in 1966

  • and the famous Stonewall Inn in 1969.

  • In 1970, Sylvia Rivera and Marsha P. Johnson,

  • two veterans of Stonewall,

  • established STAR: Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries.

  • Trans people continued to fight for equal treatment under the law,

  • even as they faced higher rates of discrimination,

  • unemployment, arrests, and the looming AIDS epidemic.

  • For as long as we've been around,

  • those in power have sought to disenfranchise trans people

  • for daring to live lives that are ours.

  • This motion picture still, taken in Berlin in 1933,

  • is sometimes used in history textbooks

  • to illustrate how the Nazis burned works they considered un-German.

  • But what's rarely mentioned is that included in this massive pile

  • are works from the Institute for Sexual Research.

  • See, I just recapped the trans movement in America,

  • but Magnus Hirschfeld and his peers in Germany

  • had us beat by a few decades.

  • Magnus Hirschfeld was an early advocate for LGBT people.

  • He wrote the first book-length account of trans individuals.

  • He helped them obtain medical services and IDs.

  • He worked with the Berlin Police Department

  • to end discrimination of LGBT people,

  • and he hired them at the Institute.

  • So when the Nazi Party burned his library,

  • it had devastating implications for trans research around the world.

  • This was a deliberate attempt to erase trans people,

  • and it was neither the first nor the last.

  • So whenever people ask me why trans people are suddenly everywhere,

  • I just want to tell them that we've been here.

  • These stories have to be told,

  • along with the countless others that have been buried by time.

  • Not only were our lives not celebrated, but our struggles have been forgotten

  • and, yeah, to some people, that makes trans issues seem new.

  • Today, I meet a lot of people who think that our movement

  • is just a phase that will pass,

  • but I also hear well-intentioned allies telling us all to be patient,

  • because our movement is \"still new.\"

  • Imagine how the conversation would shift

  • if we acknowledge just how long trans people have been demanding equality.

  • Are we still overreacting?

  • Should we continue to wait?

  • Or should we, for example,

  • do something about the trans women of color who are murdered

  • and whose killers never see justice?

  • Do our circumstances seem dire to you yet?

  • (Sighs)

  • Finally, I want other trans people to realize they're not alone.

  • I grew up thinking my identity was an anomaly that would die with me.

  • People drilled this idea of otherness into my mind,

  • and I bought it because I didn't know anyone else like me.

  • Maybe if I had known my ancestors sooner,

  • it wouldn't have taken me so long to find a source of pride

  • in my identity and in my community.

  • Because I belong to an amazing, vibrant community of people

  • that uplift each other even when others won't,

  • that take care of each other even when we are struggling,

  • that somehow, despite it all,

  • still find cause to celebrate each other,

  • to love each other,

  • to look one another in the eyes and say,

  • \"You are not alone.

  • You have us.

  • And we're not going anywhere.\"

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Why are transgender people suddenly everywhere?

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TED】サミー・ヌール・ユネス。トランスの人々の長い闘いの歴史 (トランスの人々の長い闘いの歴史|サミー・ヌール・ユネス) (【TED】Samy Nour Younes: A short history of trans people's long fight for equality (A short history of trans people's long fight for equality | Samy Nour Younes))

  • 151 9
    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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