Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • So I'm going to talk about work,

    翻訳: Keiichi Kudo 校正: ツカモト ニキ

  • specifically why people can't seem

    これは仕事についての話です

  • to get work done at work,

    特にどうして私たちは職場で

  • which is a problem we all kind of have.

    仕事ができないのか

  • But let's, sort of, start at the beginning.

    という問題について話します

  • So we have companies and non-profits and charities

    まずは最初から説明しましょう

  • and all these groups

    企業やNPOや慈善団体

  • that have employees

    様々な組織があり

  • or volunteers of some sort.

    そこには従業員や

  • And they expect these people who work for them

    ボランティアなどの人々が働いています

  • to do great work --

    雇用主はここで働く人々から

  • I would hope, at least.

    素晴らしい仕事を期待している

  • At least good work, hopefully, at least it's good work --

    そう思いたいです

  • hopefully great work.

    最低限でも良い仕事を

  • And so what they typically do is they decide

    素晴らしい仕事を期待しています

  • that all these people need to come together in one place

    そこで彼らは通常

  • to do that work.

    従業員を一か所にまとめて

  • So a company, or a charity, or an organization of any kind,

    そこで仕事をさせます

  • they typically -- unless you're working in Africa,

    つまり企業、団体などの組織では

  • if you're really lucky to do that --

    アフリカへの異動があるぐらい

  • most people have to go to an office every day.

    ラッキーでない限り

  • And so these companies,

    普通の人は毎日職場へ通勤します

  • they build offices.

    そこで会社は

  • They go out and they buy a building, or they rent a building,

    オフィスを設けます

  • or they lease some space,

    物件を購入 あるいは賃借し

  • and they fill the space with stuff.

    または部屋をリースして

  • They fill it with tables, or desks,

    そこにいろいろ詰め込みます

  • chairs, computer equipment,

    机 あるいはデスク

  • software,

    イス  コンピュータ

  • Internet access,

    ソフトウェア

  • maybe a fridge, maybe a few other things,

    インターネット環境

  • and they expect their employees, or their volunteers,

    もしかしたら冷蔵庫などのおまけも

  • to come to that location every day to do great work.

    そして従業員が毎日そこに通勤して

  • It seems like it's perfectly reasonable to ask that.

    素晴らしい仕事をすることを期待します

  • However, if you actually talk to people

    ごく当たり前な事に聞こえます

  • and even question yourself,

    ここで質問を出します

  • and you ask yourself,

    みなさんもどうぞ

  • where do you really want to go when you really need to get something done?

    自分自身に問いかけてください

  • You'll find out that people don't say

    『仕事に集中したい時、どこに行きますか?』

  • what businesses think they would say.

    この質問に、人は上司の期待とは

  • If you ask people the question: where do you really need to go

    別の回答を出すのです

  • when you need to get something done?

    「仕事に集中したい時にあなたが

  • Typically you get three different kinds of answers.

    行きたい場所は?」と聞くと

  • One is kind of a place or a location or a room.

    3種類の答が出ます

  • Another one is a moving object

    一つは部屋や空間

  • and a third is a time.

    もう一つは移動手段

  • So here's some examples.

    そして時間です

  • When I ask people -- and I've been asking people this question for about 10 years --

    例を出しましょう

  • I ask them, "Where do you go when you really need to get something done?"

    私は10年間この質問を出しています

  • I'll hear things like, the porch, the deck,

    「仕事に集中したい時 どこへ行きますか?」

  • the kitchen.

    かえってくる返事はベランダや

  • I'll hear things like an extra room in the house,

    キッチン

  • the basement,

    自宅の空き部屋

  • the coffee shop, the library.

    地下室

  • And then you'll hear things like the train,

    カフェや図書館など

  • a plane, a car -- so, the commute.

    それに電車や

  • And then you'll hear people say,

    飛行機や車 - つまり乗り物

  • "Well, it doesn't really matter where I am,

    そしてこんな答えも聞きます

  • as long as it's really early in the morning or really late at night or on the weekends."

    「早朝か深夜 または週末なら

  • You almost never hear someone say the office.

    どこであっても構いません」

  • But businesses are spending all this money on this place called the office,

    オフィスと答える人はほぼゼロ

  • and they're making people go to it all the time,

    企業はオフィスと呼ばれる空間にお金をかけ

  • yet people don't do work in the office.

    人々にそこを利用させますが

  • What is that about?

    誰もそこで仕事をしない

  • Why is that?

    これは何なんだ?

  • Why is that happening?

    何故だろう?

  • And what you find out is that, if you dig a little bit deeper,

    何故こうなったのか?

  • you find out that people --

    この問題にもう少し踏み込むと

  • this is what happens --

    原因が見えてきます

  • people go to work,

    つまりこういう事です

  • and they're basically trading in their workday

    人々は職場に行くと

  • for a series of "work moments."

    一日の勤務時間を

  • That's what happens at the office.

    多くの作業時間に小分けされます

  • You don't have a workday anymore. You have work moments.

    これがオフィスの現状です

  • It's like the front door of the office is like a Cuisinart,

    「勤務日」が「作業時間」に

  • and you walk in and your day is shredded to bits,

    オフィスの入り口がシュレッダーで

  • because you have 15 minutes here and 30 minutes there,

    一日の時間がバラバラにされるように

  • and then something else happens and you're pulled off your work,

    こっちで15分 あっちで30分

  • and you've got to do something else, then you have 20 minutes, then it's lunch.

    突然の用事で仕事から引き離され

  • Then you have something else to do.

    そしたら20分後に昼休み

  • Then you've got 15 minutes, and someone pulls you aside and asks you this question,

    その後また別の作業があり

  • and before you know it, it's 5 p.m.,

    15分後、頼みごとをされる

  • and you look back on the day,

    気がつけばもう5時に

  • and you realize that you didn't get anything done.

    一日を振り返れば

  • I mean, we've all been through this.

    何もロクにできなかった事に気づく

  • We probably went through it yesterday,

    そんな経験ないですか?

  • or the day before, or the day before that.

    昨日はどうでしたか?

  • You look back on your day, and you're like, I got nothing done today.

    一昨日は、それともその前の日は?

  • I was at work.

    夕方になって 「何もしていない!」と気づく

  • I sat at my desk. I used my expensive computer.

    仕事には行った

  • I used the software they told me to use.

    デスクに座り、高いパソコンを使った

  • I went to these meetings I was asked to go to.

    用意されたソフトウェアを使用した

  • I did these conference calls. I did all this stuff.

    出席するべき会議にも出た

  • But I didn't actually do anything.

    電話会議もして、こんなにやったのに

  • I just did tasks.

    実際には何もしていない

  • I didn't actually get meaningful work done.

    作業をこなしただけだ

  • And what you find is that, especially with creative people --

    意味のある仕事は何もしていない

  • designers, programmers,

    そうして気づくのは

  • writers, engineers,

    デザイナーやプログラマや

  • thinkers --

    ライターやエンジニア

  • that people really need

    思想家などの

  • long stretches of uninterrupted time to get something done.

    クリエイティブな仕事には

  • You cannot ask somebody to be creative in 15 minutes

    邪魔がない一定の時間が必要だという事です

  • and really think about a problem.

    問題に創造的に取り組むのに

  • You might have a quick idea,

    15分ではとても無理です

  • but to be in deep thought about a problem and really consider a problem carefully,

    小手先のアイデアは出てきても

  • you need long stretches of uninterrupted time.

    じっくり取り組んで慎重に考え抜くには

  • And even though the workday is typically eight hours,

    邪魔のない一定の時間が必要となります

  • how many people here have ever had eight hours to themselves at the office?

    勤務時間は通常8時間ですが

  • How about seven hours?

    実際に8時間集中できる人はいますか?

  • Six? Five? Four?

    7時間は?

  • When's the last time you had three hours to yourself at the office?

    6? 5? 4?

  • Two hours? One, maybe?

    最近3時間通しで仕事に打ち込めましたか?

  • Very, very few people actually have

    2時間は? 1時間なら?

  • long stretches of uninterrupted time at an office.

    邪魔の入らない一定の時間を

  • And this is why people choose to do work at home,

    得る人は本当に数人しかいません

  • or they might go to the office,

    だから家で仕事をするのを好むのです

  • but they might go to the office really early in the day,

    あるいはオフィスへ行っても

  • or late at night when no one's around,

    誰もいない早朝か

  • or they stick around after everyone's left, or they go in on the weekends,

    夜遅くに行く人もいます

  • or they get work done on the plane,

    又は残業する人、週末出勤する人

  • or they get work done in the car or in the train

    飛行機で仕事をする人

  • because there are no distractions.

    車や電車で仕事する人もいます

  • Now, there are different kinds of distractions,

    それなら邪魔がないからです

  • but there aren't the really bad kinds of distractions

    別の種類の邪魔が入ったりもしますが

  • that I'll talk about in just a minute.

    特にひどい妨害でもないです

  • And this sort of whole phenomenon

    それについても話しましょう

  • of having short bursts of time to get things done

    仕事をしようとする時

  • reminds me of another thing

    ばらけた短時間しか取れないという現象は

  • that doesn't work when you're interrupted,

    妨害されるとうまくいかない

  • and that is sleep.

    別の事と似ています

  • I think that sleep and work are very closely related,

    それは睡眠です

  • and it's not just that you can work while you're sleeping

    睡眠と仕事はよく似ています

  • and you can sleep while you're working.

    別に睡眠中に仕事ができるとか

  • That's not really what I mean.

    仕事をしながら居眠りをするとか

  • I'm talking specifically about the fact

    そういった話ではなく

  • that sleep and work

    睡眠と仕事は

  • are phased-based,

    どちらも周期、

  • or stage-based, events.

    またはステージごとに

  • So sleep is about sleep phases, or stages --

    続く現象だということです

  • some people call them different things.

    「周期」と「ステージ」

  • There's five of them,

    どちらも意味は同じですが、

  • and in order to get to the really deep ones, the really meaningful ones,

    睡眠には 5 つの段階があります

  • you have to go through the early ones.

    深く、効果ある安眠を得るためには

  • And if you're interrupted while you're going through the early ones --

    初段階の睡眠を経る必要があります

  • if someone bumps you in bed,

    誰かがぶつかったり

  • or if there's a sound, or whatever happens --

    物音がしたりなど

  • you don't just pick up where you left off.

    妨害が起きると

  • If you're interrupted and woken up,

    眠りなおすのは簡単ではありません

  • you have to start again.

    いきなり起こされたら

  • So you have to go back a few phases and start again.

    また繰り返しです

  • And what ends up happening -- sometimes you might have days like this

    初期段階に戻ってまた眠りなおす

  • where you wake up at eight in the morning, or seven in the morning,

    こんな経験をした事はないですか?

  • or whenever you get up,

    朝8時、または7時ごろ

  • and you're like, man, I didn't really sleep very well.

    いつもの時間に起きたのに

  • I did the sleep thing -- I went to bed, I laid down --

    うーん よく眠れなかったなあ と感じる

  • but I didn't really sleep.

    横になって寝る 一応「睡眠」の形はとっても

  • People say you go to sleep,

    本当の「睡眠が」取れなかったのです

  • but you really don't go to sleep, you go towards sleep.

    「眠りにつく」と言いますが

  • It just takes a while. You've got to go through these phases and stuff,

    実際は 「眠りに向かっていく」のです

  • and if you're interrupted, you don't sleep well.

    段階を踏むので時間がかかります

  • So how do we expect -- does anyone here expect someone to sleep well

    邪魔が入ると安眠になりません

  • if they're interrupted all night?

    一晩中妨害されてもぐっすり眠れる

  • I don't think anyone would say yes.

    そんな人がいると思いますか?

  • Why do we expect people to work well

    多分いないでしょう

  • if they're being interrupted all day at the office?

    オフィスで一日中妨害される人たちに

  • How can we possibly expect people to do their job

    どうやって良い成果が望めるのでしょう?

  • if they're going to the office to be interrupted?

    妨害が入るオフィスでどうやって

  • That doesn't really seem like it makes a lot of sense to me.

    仕事をしろと言えるのでしょうか?

  • So what are these interruptions that happen at the office

    無茶苦茶でしょう

  • that don't happen at other places?

    では、他の場所では起きない

  • Because in other places, you can have interruptions,

    オフィス内の妨害とは一体何でしょう?

  • like, you can have the TV,

    外の場所にも誘惑はあります

  • or you could go for a walk,

    テレビがあったり

  • or there's a fridge downstairs,

    散歩にも出られたり

  • or you've got your own couch, or whatever you want to do.

    下には冷蔵庫があったり

  • And if you talk to certain managers,

    楽になれるソファなど、 自由にできます

  • they'll tell you that they don't want their employees to work at home

    管理職の方と話してみると

  • because of these distractions.

    従業員に家で仕事をして欲しくない理由として

  • They'll also say --

    こういった妨害の例が出ます

  • sometimes they'll also say,

    他にも、「自分の目の-

  • "Well, if I can't see the person, how do I know they're working?"

    -届かない場所にいるなら-

  • which is ridiculous, of course, but that's one of the excuses that managers give.

    -ちゃんと仕事をしているか分からない!」

  • And I'm one of these managers.

    馬鹿な話ですが、そう言い訳する上司もいます

  • I understand. I know how this goes.

    わたし自身もマネージャーです

  • We all have to improve on this sort of thing.

    ちゃんと問題を心得ています

  • But oftentimes they'll cite distractions.

    我々が改善していかなくてはなりません

  • "I can't let someone work at home.

    しかし彼らはしばしば誘惑について言及します

  • They'll watch TV. They'll do this other thing."

    「家で仕事なんてとんでもない」

  • It turns out that those aren't the things that are really distracting.

    「TVを見たり別の事をしているだろう」

  • Because those are voluntary distractions.

    それらは本当の妨害ではないのです

  • You decide when you want to be distracted by the TV.

    そういうのは任意で発生する妨害だからです

  • You decide when you want to turn something on.

    テレビという誘惑を見るのは本人が選択します

  • You decide when you want to go downstairs or go for a walk.

    妨害要因に触れるときは本人が選択します

  • At the office, most of the interruptions and distractions

    冷蔵庫や散歩に向かうときも本人の選択

  • that really cause people not to get work done

    オフィスで人々の仕事の中断させる

  • are involuntary.

    邪魔や妨害のほとんどは

  • So let's go through a couple of those.

    強制的です

  • Now, managers and bosses

    例をいくつか出しましょう

  • will often have you think that the real distractions at work

    マネージャーや上司は

  • are things like Facebook and Twitter

    職場での本当の妨害は

  • and YouTube and other websites,

    Facebook Twitter

  • and in fact, they'll go so far

    Youtube などのサイトであると信じています

  • as to actually ban these sites at work.

    そして彼らは

  • Some of you may work at places where you can't get to these certain sites.

    そうしたサイトを職場で禁止します

  • I mean, is this China? What the hell is going on here?

    みなさんの職場もこんな感じですか?

  • You can't go to a website at work,

    ここは中国か?一体どうしてしまったんだ

  • and that's the problem, that's why people aren't getting work done,

    従業員がツイッターを使うから

  • because they're going to Facebook and they're going to Twitter?

    仕事の効率が上がらない。

  • That's kind of ridiculous. It's a total decoy.

    だから職場のネットへのアクセスが検閲される。

  • And today's Facebook and Twitter and YouTube,

    馬鹿げています。問題はそこじゃありません

  • these things are just modern-day smoke breaks.

    この場合のFacebook Twitter Youtube は

  • No one cared about letting people take a smoke break for 15 minutes

    現代の「煙草タイム」みたいなものです

  • 10 years ago,

    10年前は一服しに15分間抜け出す人がいても

  • so why does everyone care about someone going to Facebook here and there,

    誰も構いませんでした

  • or Twitter here and there, or YouTube here and there?

    それなのにどうして あっちでもこっちでも

  • Those aren't the real problems in the office.

    Facebook Twitter Youtube などの利用を問題視するのでしょう?

  • The real problems are what I like to call

    オフィスの本当の問題はここではありません

  • the M&Ms,

    本当の問題は

  • the Managers and the Meetings.

    わたしが M&M's と呼んでいる

  • Those are the real problems in the modern office today.

    マネージャーとミーティングです

  • And this is why things don't get done at work --

    現在のオフィスにおける本当の問題です

  • it's because of the M&Ms.

    職場で仕事が片づかない理由が

  • Now what's interesting is,

    この M&M's です

  • if you listen to all the places that people talk about doing work --

    興味深いことに

  • like at home, or in a car, or on a plane,

    仕事をする場所として挙げられた場所ー

  • or late at night, or early in the morning --

    家 車の中 飛行機

  • you don't find managers and meetings.

    あるいは夜や早朝ー

  • You find a lot of other distractions, but you don't find managers and meetings.

    そこには上司や会議もありません

  • So these are the things that you don't find elsewhere,

    他の誘惑は山ほどありますが 上司や会議はありません

  • but you do find at the office.

    職場にあって他にはないもの

  • And managers are basically people

    それがこの二つです

  • whose job it is to interrupt people.

    マネージャーとは基本的に

  • That's pretty much what managers are for. They're for interrupting people.

    人の邪魔をすることが役なのです

  • They don't really do the work,

    それが仕事なんですよ、人の邪魔をするのが

  • so they have to make sure everyone else is doing the work, which is an interruption.

    彼らはあまり仕事をしないので

  • And we have a lot of managers in the world now,

    他の仕事を確認しに来ます。これが妨害となります

  • and there's a lot of people in the world now,

    世界中にはたくさんのマネージャーがいます

  • and there's a lot of interruptions in the world now because of these managers.

    そしてたくさんの人がいます

  • They have to check in: "Hey, how's it going?

    世界では毎日上司による邪魔が起こっています

  • Show me what's up," and this sort of thing

    「どうだ?どれくらい進んだ?」のような事をいって

  • and they keep interrupting you at the wrong time,

    見回りにやって来ます

  • while you're actually trying to do something they're paying you to do,

    あなたが金をもらってやっている

  • they tend to interrupt you.

    仕事の最中に度悪いタイミングで訪れ