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  • [CLOCK TICKING RAPIDLY]

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • CARL AZUZ: Welcome, everyone.

  • I'm Carl Azuz for "CNN 10."

  • There are nine countries in the world that are believed

  • to have nuclear weapons.

  • And two of them, which happen to be neighbors,

  • have just had a flare-up in their rivalry.

  • We're talking about the South Asian countries

  • of India and Pakistan.

  • Other governments are asking them to show restraint to try

  • to calm down their tensions.

  • Earlier this month, there was a suicide car

  • bomb attack on Indian soldiers in a territory

  • controlled by India.

  • 40 troops were killed.

  • India says a terrorist group, based in Pakistan,

  • is responsible.

  • And it accuses Pakistan of supporting the attack.

  • Pakistan says it had nothing to do with the bombing.

  • But on Tuesday, India launched airstrikes

  • in Pakistani territory for the first time in almost 50 years.

  • India says it was targeting a camp

  • run by the terrorist group.

  • Then on Wednesday, Pakistan says its Air Force shot

  • down two Indian fighter jets that had flown over territory

  • Pakistan says it controls.

  • India confirmed it had lost one plane,

  • but said it had shot down a Pakistani jet, too.

  • We don't know exactly what happened with the planes.

  • But we can tell you about a problem

  • that's existed between these two countries for years.

  • It's a dispute over a territory named Kashmir.

  • It's located on the northern borders of Pakistan and India.

  • Both nations control parts of Kashmir,

  • but both nations claim that the entire territory

  • should be theirs.

  • It's by no means a new dispute.

  • It's caused fighting and wars between them

  • for decades, including the violence

  • that we've seen this week.

  • MALLIKA KAPUR: They're neighbors with a shared history,

  • but a fractured present.

  • 70 years ago, British rulers sliced a giant Indian empire

  • into two countries--

  • a new Hindu-majority India, and Pakistan,

  • home to mostly Muslims.

  • From the 18th century through independence,

  • the British Empire in India stretched from Afghanistan in

  • the west to Burma in the east.

  • But by the 1940s, anti-colonial sentiments

  • swelled in many British colonies around the world,

  • including India.

  • Demands for India's independence grew, led by freedom fighters

  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Jabari Lal Nehru, and Muhammad

  • Ali Jinnah, who favored a separate state

  • for India's Muslim minorities.

  • India was burning.

  • Communal tensions between Hindus and Muslims

  • spiraled out of control.

  • Calls to end British rule were reaching boiling point.

  • On the back of a costly second World War,

  • Britain lacked the will and the means

  • to defeat the independence movement.

  • Britain decided to quit India.

  • In March 1947, Naval officer Lord Mountbatten

  • was appointed the viceroy of India

  • to oversee the handover of power.

  • He assigned British lawyer Cyril Radcliffe

  • to draw the partition line.

  • In just six weeks, he finalized a plan to divide India

  • along religious lines.

  • There would be a new India, a secular India,

  • though it's where the Hindu majority would live,

  • and a separate country called Pakistan for Muslims.

  • On midnight of August 14, 1947, the British empire

  • officially transferred power to India and Pakistan.

  • After nearly two centuries of colonial rule,

  • India became a sovereign nation and Pakistan was born.

  • Jinnah became head of the newly-formed Pakistan.

  • Nehru became the first prime minister of India.

  • The partition saw one of the largest human migrations

  • the world has ever seen.

  • Millions of Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan

  • headed to India.

  • Millions of Muslims migrated to Pakistan in trains,

  • [INAUDIBLE], on foot.

  • In a matter of months, at least 10 million people

  • moved across the borders.

  • At least a million Hindus, Muslims,

  • and Sikhs died in communal attacks

  • as they crossed the border.

  • Tens of thousands of women and girls were abducted.

  • Families were divided.

  • 24 years later in 1971, the East Wing of Pakistan

  • split away to become a separate country called Bangladesh.

  • The west side remained as present-day Pakistan.

  • India and Pakistan have fought four wars since 1947,

  • mostly fueled by disputes over the northern Himalayan

  • state of Jammu and Kashmir.

  • Both countries claim it in its entirety,

  • but only control parts of it.

  • Though both sides have attempted to restore peace many times,

  • they remain hostile, nuclear-armed neighbors

  • even today.

  • Mallika Kapur, CNN, Amritsar, India.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • CARL AZUZ: 10-second trivia.

  • Which of these landmarks would you

  • find in Yosemite National Park?

  • Chimney Rock, Landscape Arch, Crater Lake, or El Capitan?

  • El Cap, as it's also known, is a famous feature at California's

  • Yosemite National Park.

  • It's 3,200 feet tall.

  • Its walls are just about vertical.

  • It was once believed to be impossible to climb,

  • but that changed in the late 1950s,

  • according to Encyclopedia Britannica, when an expedition

  • to install pitons and drilling holes for ropes

  • helped a climber named Warren Harding

  • make his way up El Capitan.

  • Two years ago, history on the mountain

  • was made again when a 33-year-old

  • climber free soloed--

  • meaning climbed it without any ropes.

  • As CNN.com puts it, if he slips, he falls.

  • If he falls, he dies.

  • The film that won this year's Academy

  • Award for Best Documentary was based on this climber.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • ALEX HONNOLD: When I know what I'm doing

  • and I'm climbing well, then it feels meditative, and very

  • relaxing, and beautiful.

  • But if I don't know what I'm doing and I sort of hesitate

  • and start to get scared, then it can be a nightmare.

  • Typically, watching free soloing is scarier than doing it

  • because when you're doing the climb,

  • you know how comfortable you feel.

  • You know how in control you feel.

  • You know, whereas when you're watching,

  • you have no idea how the person feels.

  • And so you kind of fear the worst.

  • Then you drive up off the left foot into the thumb press.

  • That's the worst hold on the entire route.

  • So you get maybe half your thumb on the hold.

  • As it turned out, when I had the experience,

  • it was probably good that it was so high off the ground

  • because I had done so much and I was so deeply in the zone,

  • I guess-- you know, I was basically

  • performing so well that by the time I got there,

  • I felt incredible.

  • And I just executed it perfectly.

  • Basically, the last five or six hundred feet--

  • the last 200 meters--

  • get easier and easier as you go.

  • And so it really feels like you're sort of sprinting

  • to the finish line.

  • And it's, like, beautiful.

  • And you're just like, oh, this is so nice.

  • You know, you can sort of, like, relax more as you get closer

  • and enjoy it more as you get closer to the top.

  • And so when I came over the summit, I mean,

  • I was just like, this is awesome.

  • Yeah.

  • It was incredible.

  • It is definitely a physical challenge to climb El Cap.

  • But compared to the standards of the day,

  • I mean, the challenge isn't really physical,

  • or the main challenge isn't physical for free soloing El

  • Cap.

  • It's definitely a bigger mental challenge than physical.

  • I think regardless of the film, regardless of any media

  • accompanying it, I mean, at some point,

  • I can just have a picnic with my family, look at the wall,

  • and be like, that is the wall that I climbed once.

  • Like, that's-- you know, I mean, it's just--

  • it's deeply satisfying.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • CARL AZUZ: In Japan, there's a restaurant

  • that challenges you to eat more noodles

  • than you thought possible.

  • The small bowls of soba noodles are refilled as

  • soon as you eat what's inside.

  • And this lady managed to take down 300 bowls of them.

  • That's the equivalent of 20 regular-sized bowls of noodles.

  • So any way you do the math, it's a lot, y'all.

  • The restaurant says its record was set when someone ate

  • 570 small bowls, or about 38 regular bowls of soba,

  • in one sitting.

  • Finding someone to break that record

  • would be like finding a noodle in a haystack.

  • Critics might call that glutinous.

  • Supporters might say it's worth wheating for.

  • But if you're up for a challenging bowl game

  • and you're bringing a souped-up appetite,

  • it's tough to beat a lunch that's all-you-can-wheat.

  • I'm Carl Azuz, and that's CNN.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

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CNN10】2019年2月28日 ([CNN 10] February 28, 2019)

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