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CARL AZUZ: Wrapping up the week
for "CNN 10," I'm Carl Azuz.

We're starting today's show
in the South American nation

of Brazil, which is trying to
come to grips with the worst

mining disaster in its history.
We told you on January
28 how the collapse

of a dam at an iron mine sent a
flood of mining debris and mud

into the city of Brumadinho.
The number of people who
died from the incident

has risen to 150.
And Brazil's government
says at least

182 others are still missing.
Rescue officials do
not think they're

going to find any
more survivors,

according to the British
Broadcasting Corporation.

It also reports that Vale,
the company that owns the mine

says it followed recommended
safety procedures.

But this is the second
mine owned by Vale

where a dam has collapsed.
The other incident
happened in the same region

in 2015, killing 19 people
and polluting the environment.

And as the Reuters news
organization reports,

a Brazilian state
official recently

blamed the same problem
for both disasters.

Parts of the dam, which was
made of dried mud and sand,

turned into liquid, causing
the structure to fail.

In addition to the
lives lost, the collapse

contaminated a river
downstream with mining

debris, waste, and toxins.
And observers say the resulting
pollution from that could

indirectly impact millions.
There's a growing challenge
facing China, specifically

the future of its economy.
And it's a consequence of
the Communist government's

controversial one-child policy.
In the late 1970s, the
world's most populated country

wanted to slow down the
growth of that population.

So it instituted a
policy in 1980 that

limited families to one child.
In some cases, it forced
couples to stop having children.

The program ended in 2016.
Chinese families are now
allowed to have two children.

But the results
of the limit mean

fewer children are
alive to support

the country's aging population.
MATT RIVERS: This is a brutal
trudge for a healthy person.

But for 68-year-old Qin
Taixiao, stricken with emphysema

and cancer, it's near torture.
He keeps warm by
burning firewood.

It's cheaper than coal.
can I say, he says.

Life's all right.
There's no other way.
That steely stoicism
is common in China's

rural villages, where life
has only gotten tougher.

Young people have
been largely swept

away by the relentless current
of China's urban migration.

Qin's children left
for work years ago.

He and his wife, Sun
Sherong, carry on alone.

MATT RIVERS: It's difficult for
our children to care for us,

she says.
We don't want to
become a burden.

150 miles away in Beijing,
it a burden that 32-year-old

Fan Meng knows well.
She and her husband financially
support both their parents,

the four grandparents of
their five-year-old daughter,

Qi Shuanrun.
She likes to ski and she
enjoys diving, Fan says.

If those are her interests,
we have to support her.

And that all costs money.
The village couple and
their city counterpart

are a microcosm of
China's aging problem.

Simply put, there are
a lot more older people

in China than younger ones.
And an aging population, along
with greater life expectancy,

can have drastic consequences.
Less working age people
might limit the government's

ability to pay for the benefits
needed by its aging population.

National economic priorities
will shift more towards health

care and pension obligations.
And it might also hurt
consumer spending,

with the combined effect of
slowing China's economic growth

potential way down.
The obvious solution here
is to have more babies.

But that's not happening.
There were 2 million
fewer births in 2018.

And most studies agree
that China's population

will soon begin to shrink.
The government knows
this, and in 2016, changed

the notorious one-child policy.
Couples are now allowed to
have two babies per family.

And there's speculation
the Communist

Party could erase
any restrictions

as soon as this year.
But for families like Fan
Meng's, that doesn't matter.

MATT RIVERS: For me, she
says, one baby is enough.

One baby is what I can afford in
terms of both energy and money.

Not wanting more kids
is a nationwide trend

that's unlikely to
change, with higher

costs and more opportunities
for women as two reasons why.

Back in the village,
Qin Taixiao and his wife

survive on about $1,500
per year selling corn.

At some point, though, hauling
50 kilos of wood twice a day

will be too much and his
meager income not enough.

They'll need help, just like
all of China's older citizens.

Whether there will be enough
young people to support

them is one of Chinese
society's great questions.

Matt Rivers, CNN, Beijing.
CARL AZUZ: "10-Second Trivia."
Nicolo Amati, like
Antonio Stradivari,

became famous for
his work with what?

Paintings, fountains,
instruments, or bridges.

Some of the greatest
violins ever made

are associated with the Amati
and Stradivari families.

Some of their violins are said
to be acoustically perfect.

But it's not known what
makes them that way.

Britannica says some

believe it's in the
instruments' mysterious varnish.

Others say it's a
combination of that,

plus the thickness and
condition of the wood.

There's a project
going on that uses

modern technology to carefully
document their historic tones.


things compare to the sound

of a virtuoso playing.
But this is no
ordinary instrument.

It's an Amati viola
from the 17th century.

And it's being played
here in Cremona, where

music-making is an art form.
These instruments are displayed
in the town's renowned violin

museum, Renaissance and
Baroque masterpieces

made by legendary artisans
like Stradivari and Amati,

who created many of the first
violins, violas, and cellos

as we know them today.
No one makes string
instruments like this anymore,

which were created to delight
the royal courts of Europe.

And the unique sound they create
can't be replicated either.

Maestro Fausto
Cacciatori is in charge

of taking these precious
instruments out of their museum

cases and down to
the auditorium, where

their sound can be recorded.

that these instruments that we

are conserving will be played
in 200 or 300 years time

and that the sound is just
like we hear today, he says.


Two tech companies
have teamed up

to immortalize the notes of
these centuries-old instruments

into a sound bank
to do just that.

record everything

you can perform on
the violin, but not

as part of a
musical performance,

but basically bit
by bit, one by one.

So we are recording
long notes, short notes,

just broken down into very
tiny pieces and elements

of the performance.
the recordings are finished,

software developers will be
able to use the notes and tones

for their own compositions.
But it takes complete
silence in order

to carry out these recordings
the tower had to cooperate.

They've closed the
street with cobblestones

to traffic in order
to try to limit

the vibrations
and reverberations

inside the recording studio.
The project creators believe
the sacrifices will pay off.

It will be something

that will allow the digital
composer to make music.

And it will be a
very practical tool.

But it will never be like
having a live musician.

Latza Nadeau for CNN, Cremona.

CARL AZUZ: A family reunion
gets a 10 out of 10 today.

But it's a family
that's a little odder

than you're used to.
Literally, a little otter.
It was found earlier this
week by a commercial fisherman

after the pup became
separated from its mother.

Officials recorded
the pup's cries

and then played
them over a speaker

so the mother could hear.
After they located her,
they tossed the pup in.

And after a few moments,
she pops up to get her baby.

Her baby's light in the
water, so you can't say she

forgot her.
Though a fisherman had caught
her, Momma Otter had begot her.

And it's clear that
she had sought her,

so that when the
man had brought her,

it turned any otter day
to a special motter's day.

So if you catch one,
don't play possum.

Find the mom and
then just toss him.

It's a sample an example
of how Fridays are awesome.

I'm Carl Azuz.
And that's "CNN 10."


[CNN 10] February 8, 2019

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