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CARL AZUZ: It is the eighth day of 2019,
and we're happy you're spending 10 minutes of it with us.
I'm Carl Azuz at the CNN Center.
The border between the United States and Mexico
has been getting a lot of attention lately.
And US President Donald Trump is planning to visit
the area again on Thursday.
He wants Congress to approve $5.6 billion
in funding for a wall along the US-Mexico border.
The House of Representatives approved
that money in December.
The Senate did not.
And because Congress and the president
couldn't agree on funding for the wall as part of a bigger
funding package for the federal government,
a partial government shutdown began on December 22.
We explained and explored this issue last Friday.
You can find our January 4 show in the archives section
at CNN10.com.
By partial shutdown, we mean that about 25%
of the government is closed.
It includes 800,000 federal employees.
About half of them won't be paid until the government reopens.
The other half are forced to take time off without pay.
Republicans and Democrats are pretty well
dug in on their positions concerning the wall.
Most Republicans want the funding approved
so it can be built. Most Democrats want the funding
denied so it can't be built. The president
and lawmakers have had several meetings to discuss the issue.
But as of Monday night, there'd been no breakthrough.
So without a government funding plan in place,
the shutdown continues.
There have been more than 20 partial shutdowns since 1976.
The longest lasted 21 days, from 1995 to 1996.
10 second trivia.
In the late 1800s, Swiss chemist Friedrich Miescher
became the first scientist to identify what?
Magnetism, DNA, thermodynamics, or X-rays?
Decades before Watson and Crick were at work,
Miescher was the first to identify
what would become known as deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
For decades DNA has been used in criminal justice
to identify suspects or clear people
who've been falsely accused.
Now, a type of technology called DNA
phenotyping could take crime scene
analysis to another level.
In DNA profiling, which investigators have used
for years, they try to match DNA from a crime scene
to records they already have in their system.
With the new technology, genetic information doesn't
need to be matched or compared.
It uses the DNA on its own to predict
what someone could look like.
The process isn't cheap, and there
are privacy concerns about it.
If you're listed in Ancestry.com,
for instance, your relationship to a suspect
could be discovered.
But this is changing the way some investigations
are carried out.
RACHEL CRANE: The technology is called DNA phenotyping,
developed by Parabon Nano Labs.
From just a small sample of DNA, they
can create a composite image of what someone could look like.
What kind of impact do you think that this technology will
have on forensics long term?
MARC LIMANSKY: Here we have another avenue
we can explore if we run into dead ends along the way.
ELLEN GREYTAK: We're essentially bringing in entirely new ways
to analyze forensic DNA.
Traditional forensic DNA analysis looks just at,
can this DNA from a crime scene be
matched to a suspect we've already identified
or to a database?
But if you don't find a match, it couldn't
tell you anything else.
We can generate leads just from the DNA
that's at that crime scene.
RACHEL CRANE: Parabon started to offer forensic services
to law enforcement in 2015.
Since then, they've assisted in over 40 cases.
ELLEN GREYTAK: A lot of the cases
we work, it turns out that they had
some information that was leading
them in a particular direction.
And our information completely redirects.
You know, you're not looking for a person of that description.
You're looking for a person of this very
different description.
And once they pivot and start going down that road,
they can find that person.
RACHEL CRANE: Our DNA carries a specific instruction
set for an individual's physical characteristics.
With only a small sample, Parabon
can pull from tens of thousands of genetic variants
to predict what a person looks like.
ELLEN GREYTAK: So basically we were predicting where the face
falls on different facial dimensions
in what we call face space.
And so this all just comes out of some math
that we do on face data.
And as the numbers change, it's showing
different possible faces.
So there's a wide variety of possible faces
that could be predicted.
RACHEL CRANE: That looks like you.
ELLEN GREYTAK: That is me.
This may not be my driver's license image.
But if I were-- RACHEL CRANE: It's pretty close.
The service costs about $3,000.
But the results can mean authorities spend less time
and manpower to solve a case.
The composites do have limitations, though.
For instance, DNA doesn't reveal a person's age.
So to compensate, Parabon estimates what the person would
look like at present day based on how long
ago the crime was committed.
And it is simply a guide.
The phenotype alone cannot lead to a conviction.
It's the kind of stuff from a sci-fi movie.
You know what I mean?
ELLEN GREYTAK: The phenotyping is definitely very sci-fi.
RACHEL CRANE: Are there any privacy concerns?
Or what are the moral implications of all of this?
ELLEN GREYTAK: Well, with DNA phenotyping,
we're only predicting things that the person makes public
every day when they go outside, you know, their eye color,
their hair color.
We're not looking at any medical information
or anything like that.
And then with genetic genealogy all the research that we do
is public information.
RACHEL CRANE: Along with phenotyping,
genetic genealogy is being used as another tool Parabon
and law enforcement agencies are using to catch
criminals and close cold cases.
By searching a public database of DNA,
genealogists can work backwards in a family tree,
narrowing the search for a suspect.
ELLEN GREYTAK: Going forward, the number of cold cases
will decrease.
And also, active cases can potentially
be solved more quickly.
RACHEL CRANE: Before they even become cold cases.
Cases won't have to go cold.
CARL AZUZ: An 11-year-old named Liam Hannon is making headlines
in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A couple years ago he decided that instead of summer camp
he'd find another way to stay busy.
That led to his idea to donate lunches to the homeless
in his community.
And that led to collecting school supplies
and toys for homeless children.
And all of this is why Liam is one of CNN's young wonders.
LIAM HANNON: I think about how tough it
is for someone to be homeless.
Everyone should have a place to live.
Helping people is important to me,
because people just need a little kindness in their life.
My name is Liam Hannon the mission
of Liam's Lunches of Love is to give food to people
experiencing homelessness.
MARC MCGOVERN: Usually when people think about Cambridge,
they think of Harvard and MIT, and expensive real estate.
But what they don't think about is
that we have over 500 homeless people on our streets
every night.
LIAM HANNON: I was really scared at first.
I thought that people might be mean to me.
But once I gave the first lunch out,
I realized that mostly everyone was really nice.
When I gave someone a lunch, their face lit up.
- And from there, things just grew.
The next week we did 50 lunches.
And then we did 60, and 70.
And it was very quick that people were into helping.
LIAM HANNON: Since July, 2017, we've
made 2,000 or more lunches.
Hey, guys.
I just wanted to say hi, and that on Sunday I
am passing out lunches.
So if you guys want to come and help, that would be awesome.
So see you guys later.
Who wants to make sandwiches?
- I'm doing peanut butter.
- OK.
LIAM HANNON: A lot of my friends have actually come and helped.
Do you want to core apples and then
put them into sandwich bags?
Decorating the bags and making the lunches,
I know that they're going to go to someone that needs it.
Who can make more slices of their item first?
- 3, 2, 1.
- We did a turkey drive together.
He's really expanded from just the lunches,
and doing so much more.
- Liam is going to change the world.
LIAM HANNON: I'm definitely proud that I've
come all this way to make that many lunches.
You just have to start small, get help from friends,
and do something that you love.
CARL AZUZ: Freshly baked bread and vending machine,
two things that don't sound like they go together.
But they could with the Bread Bot.
It's a vending machine that can do all the steps
to turn dry ingredients into fresh bread
in about an hour and a half.
Its makers estimate that each Bread Bot would
retail at around $100,000.
It'd be leased to grocery stores,
and the company says the machine would increase their profits
and help the environment.
It could lead to confusion when you brought it home though.
Hey, is that store bought?
Yeah, it's Bread Bot.
I know it's bread.
But is it from the store?
Yeah, it's store bought Bread Bot.
But how is it bread bought if it's store bought?
At the store I bought Bread Bot.
What do you mean that it's Bread Bot.
Look, just try it.
It saved me some bread.
I mean, it saved me some dough.
I mean, ah!
I'm Carl Azuz for CNN.


CNN 10 | CNN Student News | January 8 2019

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