中級 625 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
In order to become a butterfly,
a caterpillar's body dissolves almost completely
and is rebuilt from its own juices.
As inconvenient and even downright dangerous as this process sounds,
it's actually quite common.
Butterflies are just a few of the 800,000 insect species
that transition from larvae to adults through complete metamorphosis.
That's approximately 85% of insects and 70% of all known animal species.
But how exactly does a caterpillar become a butterfly?
When a caterpillar hatches from an egg,
it has none of a butterfly's physical traits.
It does have groups of cells inside its body called imaginal discs
that will eventually become its butterfly parts.
For now, these cells remain dormant.
Juvenile hormone suppresses their activity,
and prevents the caterpillar from beginning metamorphosis too early.
Immediately after hatching, the caterpillar begins to feed,
building up fat until its rigid skin, called a cuticle, becomes too tight.
At this point, a hormone called ecdysone triggers the cuticle to shed, or molt.
As the caterpillar grows, it usually molts four times.
Then, when it's nice and plump,
the caterpillar's levels of juvenile hormone drop,
which triggers it to stop eating and moving.
A final burst of ecdysone
prompts the caterpillar's cells to begin to self-destruct.
Soon, the muscles, fat, and other tissues are almost entirely liquefied,
though the imaginal discs stay intact and begin to grow.
At the same time, a second skin layer called the pupal cuticle
forms underneath the first.
One more molt exposes the hard exterior of the pupa.
Besides the imaginal discs, only a few tissues are spared,
including parts of the respiratory system,
the heart,
some abdominal muscles,
and the mushroom bodies of the brain.
The caterpillar juice then fuels the development of the imaginal discs
into eyes,
antennae,
legs,
wings,
genitalia,
and other body parts.
Once its new body is built, the insect molts one last time,
shedding the pupal cuticle.
From there, it's free to fly away a new butterfly.
Even after such a dramatic transformation,
the butterfly does retain some memories from its caterpillar days.
It's likely the mushroom bodies of the brain
carry important knowledge from the caterpillar over to the adult butterfly.
How did such an involved developmental process come to be?
We don't know for sure.
The leading theory is that the caterpillar is actually a drawn-out version
of a life stage that takes place inside the egg for some other insects.
According to this hypothesis, over millions of years,
the larvae evolved the ability to eat and live outside the egg.
Regardless of how complete metamorphosis originated,
it's become part of the life cycles of a dizzying number of insect species.
Still, plenty of species get along perfectly well
with a simpler developmental process.
What survival advantages might complete metamorphosis provide
to make up for the added hassle?
For one, it keeps larvae and adults
from competing for the same habitats and food sources.
And while the pupa may seem vulnerable,
this immobile stage can actually be a good way
to pass parts of the year when food is scarce.
To us, a butterfly's metamorphosis might sound as fantastic
as a phoenix rising from its ashes.
But these transformations are taking place all around us, all the time.
From the Hercules beetle
to the honey bee
to the garden ant,
countless squishy larvae dissolve and emerge
as armored, aerodynamic, and nimble adults.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

The weird and wonderful metamorphosis of the butterfly - Franziska Bauer

625 タグ追加 保存
shuting1215 2019 年 1 月 6 日 に公開
お勧め動画

コメント

読み込み中…
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔