字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント October this year. Around the world, devoted fans mourned the death of Steve Jobs, the force of nature behind Apple. He distorted reality. It's a mixture of charisma, chutzpah, bullshit, self-belief, self-delusion, and insane ambition. Apple's hi-tech products have inspired fervour. Oh, it's beautiful. It's very sexy. Defining cool consumerism for a worldwide tribe. Hyped by the man who personified the brand. It works like magic. They look so good, you want to lick 'em. It's unbelievable. No-one had quite that mixture of arrogance, humility, talent and presence, which Steve Jobs had. He's changed music, he's changed movies, he's changed computers a couple of times. He's created industries that we didn't think we needed. Jobs was a perfectionist. To Steve, everything was about taste. Just like someone writing a great piece of music. And a tyrant. Steve Jobs yelling at you with his full force is kind of a pretty frightening thing for most people. How did a drug-taking college dropout create one of the most successful corporations in the world? His hippy background made him a better billionaire. This is the inside story of how Steve Jobs took Apple from a suburban garage to global supremacy. This is the launch of the Macintosh computer in 1984. An early glimpse of the way Apple has marketed itself to the world ever since. MUSIC: "Chariots Of Fire" by Vangelis The Macintosh was the first computer with a mouse that was meant for all of us. It has turned out insanely great. APPLAUSE We were all very idealistic and passionate. This was our personal cause. In this auditorium, three crucial factors came together for the first time. A new computer designed to be easier to use than any that had come before. Sold with an audacious message of revolution. And hyped by Steve Jobs himself. I'd like to open the meeting with a an old poem by Dylan. That's Bob Dylan. LAUGHTER Come writers and critics who prophesise with your pens And keep your eyes wide... What started here in 1984, with the launch of the Mac became the template that certainly got improved upon as Apple became one of the great marketing companies that the world has ever seen. ..for the loser now will be later to win for the times they are a-changin'. APPLAUSE The whole auditorium of about 2,500 people gave it a standing ovation. It was a very, very emotional moment because it was no longer ours. From that day forward, it was no loner ours, we couldn't change it. Jobs cast Apple as the plucky underdog, taking on a domineering rival. IBM wants it all and is aiming its guns on its last obstacle to industry control - Apple. Will big blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984? APPLAUSE 'We celebrate the first glorious anniversary...' Apple created an advert that painted IBM as Big Brother. the enemy of freedom. These images have helped define Apple as a brand ever since. 'We shall prevail.' That was the birth of the Apple brand. It was talked about and it was literally focusing on a revolution. And that revolutionary theme was absolutely at the core of what made Apple successful over the next years. The 1984 ad was the first time when you started to get a real sense of the Apple club. People who defined themselves by their association with the brand. That they weren't IBM clones, they were these creative thinkers who had a different attitude, in some way. I think that's been the kind of common currency that's been carried on since then. Nearly three decades on, Apple was still following the marketing template set out all those years ago. This year, Steve Jobs was centre stage for the launch of its latest tablet. And just like in 1984, his pitch was that Apple stands for something more than selling computers. It's in Apple's DNA that technology alone is not enough. That it's technology married with liberal arts, married with the humanities that yields us the result that makes our hearts sing. From the launch of the Macintosh to the unveiling of the latest iPad, two events, which span a quarter of a century, and yet which reveal a consistent vision in the company Jobs created. It wasn't a vision born of a business school education. It wasn't a product of consumer focus groups. The roots of that vision lay in the Californian counter culture in which he grew up. MUSIC: "The Times They Are A-Changin'" by Bob Dylan # Come gather round, people wherever you roam... # The young Steve Jobs came to believe technology COULD change the world. In California in the 1960s and '70s, Jobs found himself at the centre of two colliding worlds. The hippy movement and computers. # Oh, the times, they are a-changin'... # We spent a lot of time driving around in his old Volvo. I don't remember ever listening to anything other than Bob Dylan tapes. We would play them over and over again. Born in 1955, Jobs was adopted by a modest family and grew up in the Santa Clara Valley. It was becoming better known as Silicon Valley as hi-tech firms sprang up. And nearby, San Francisco was becoming the epicentre of the counter culture. Jobs opened himself up to both. He's got a lot of compartments in his mind. He was intense and thoughtful and I liked that about him. At college, Jobs met Daniel Kottke. Jobs quickly dropped out of his course and lost no time tuning in. We both got copies of this new book, Be Here Now. It was written by Ram Dass and all about his trip to India, searching for a holy man who could explain what psychedelics do. It was fascinating for me and for Steve also and so that was the basis of our friendship. Jobs became a hippy, pursuing paths to personal liberation. He and Kottke took their own trip to India, and LSD, as this extraordinary tape reveals. He spent long periods at a commune on a farm in Oregon. We spent a whole week harvesting apples and, while we were at it, we decided we would just fast on apples and see how that worked and, um... it makes you very light-headed, cos it's just like sugar. Jobs was inspired by the counter culture to believe society was there to be reshaped. As near as I can tell, Steve Jobs always had that ambition to change the world. And he expected to do that by empowering, um... everybody. But Jobs didn't share all the views of his counter culture buddies. Many hippies saw computers as tools of oppression, produced by big businesses to extend the sway of other big businesses. Jobs, though, had grown up experimenting with electronics at home. People who've done that have another angle on, er, whether technology is bad or good. They think that technology that pushes them around is bad and technology that they can push in their own direction they think is good. While he was still at school, Jobs worked at one of the big computer companies near his home in Silicon Valley. And he made a friend who would shape his destiny. We talked about electronics. I said, "I design computers. "I can, you know, do any of them." He had worked at Hewlett Packard and built himself what's called a frequency counter. So we hit it off. Despite his hippy outlook, Jobs had a ruthless streak. He was asked by the fledgling computer company Atari to design a new Breakout game. Jobs asked Wozniak to do it in just four days, telling his friend they would share the fee. He presented it like we were splitting the money 50/50, but actually, it was, you know, probably a different story. Wozniak worked round the clock to deliver the goods but later discovered Jobs had paid him considerably less than half the sum he had received from Atari. You didn't think, "I can't trust this guy"? or "He's a bit too sharp for me"? Steve could have just said, "I need money to buy into this commune up in Oregon." Have you never harboured any bitterness that he might have? I don't harbour bitterness. Even if somebody just did that right to my face, I would not harbour bitterness. But I would acknowledge the truth. Um, I did cry. I cried, you know, quite a bit, actually, when I read it in a book. The seeds of Apple were sown when Wozniak introduced Jobs to a subterranean world of DIY technology enthusiasts. The Homebrew Computer Club had ideas of how small, little people who knew things about computers could change the world, could become masters. The Homebrew Computer Club took computing out of the hands of big business. What happened was you wanted a computer or a piece of software or some product that didn't exist. You looked around, it didn't exist. So you built it. Then you showed it to your friends, cos everyone wants to show off, and your friends would say, "This is great, can I have one?" The values were sharing. If you have parts that can help people. If you have knowledge, you'll share. Wozniak brought Jobs to the Homebrew Computer Club where he was showing a new computer he had made. It would become the Apple I. He saw a business opportunity that all these people wanted to build my computer design, but they didn't have building skills. And he thought, "We'll put out some money, "design a PC board, we'll make it for $20, we'll sell it for $40." And I didn't know if we'd sell enough to get our money back. We'd have to sell about 50. And I didn't know if there were 50 people who would buy my computer. And Steve said, "Yeah, maybe we won't get our money back, "but then for once in our lives, "finally, the two of us will have our own company." Wow, man. He was... OK, he was the leader on that. In 1976, Wozniak and Jobs began selling the Apple I computer from the Jobs family garage. Buyers had to add their own case. The birth of Apple as a company had been masterminded by Jobs, a hippy with a business brain. A surprising number of people who came along as hippies and counter-culture folks in the '60s and '70s wound up going into business. Business was a way to have some freedom in the world. Steve Jobs later said he'd set up the business almost by chance. We started Apple simply because we wanted this computer for ourselves and our immediate friends wanted one once they saw us build a prototype. So gradually, we were pulled into business. We didn't set out to build a large company. We started out to build computers for us and our friends. To Apple's co-founder, the reality is a little less idealistic. Steve was always sort of focussed on if you can build things and sell them, you can have a company. And the way you make money and importance in the world is with companies. And he always spoke that he wanted to be one of those important people. So he'd got the business side pretty clearly. He got the business side but he did tie it in philosophically with, "This is how you get good things to people." It wasn't, "I only want money." It was Wozniak's next computer, which propelled Apple into the stratosphere. Released in 1977, the Apple II was the first home computer with colour graphics. Over the next three years, sales grew rapidly to more than $150 million, taking Apple from a suburban garage to the pinnacle of a new industry... personal computing. There are some great partnerships, aren't there, in the world? One thinks of Lennon and McCartney and you and Steve Jobs. Who was Lennon, who was McCartney? I am so honoured to be considered in that kind of category, and yet it's true, it's true. You know, Steve and I, we were like a... Lennon McCartney partnership, exactly. I couldn't say who was who. I always thought people always attributed me with Lennon because I had really built and designed the machines.