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Stop to buy bread from the supermarket.
Stop buying bread from the supermarket!
Do these two sentences have the same meaning?
No and in this lesson I'll show you why.
Hello I'm Emma from mmmEnglish.
Today I'm going to show you how verb patterns
can affect the meaning of sentences in English.
You see, a verb followed by a gerund
can have a completely different meaning
than if the same verb is followed by an infinitive verb.
Wow wow wow wow wow wow wow!
What's a gerund?
A gerund looks like a verb but it's actually a noun.
It's formed by adding -ing to the end
of the base form of the verb.
So a gerund is the base form with -ing.
'listen' plus -ing
Listening to music helps me relax.
This lesson right here will explain gerunds
for you in much more detail.
But the infinitive is the base form of the verb.
But there are two types of infinitives in English.
The to-infinitive which is
the verb with 'to'.
'to listen'
I prefer not to listen to music when I'm working.
But there's also the zero infinitive or the base form.
So that's the verb without 'to'.
Please listen carefully to my instructions.
Today we're focusing on the to-infinitive
so the verb with 'to'
and there are many, many verbs in English
that can be followed either by a gerund
or the to-infinitive.
Now you may hear this called a verb pattern,
when two verbs appear together in a sentence.
Some verbs completely change meaning when they're
followed by either a gerund or the to-infinitive.
So back to today's big question.
What's the difference between 'stop buying bread'
and 'stop to buy bread'?
Well 'stop' with a gerund means to quit an action.
Stop buying bread from the supermarket.
It's an order
to never buy bread again from the supermarket.
Maybe the bread is too expensive or it's not good quality
but whatever the reason,
'stop buying bread from the supermarket' means
don't buy bread there anymore.
Since we're talking about completely quitting an action,
this is also the form that you should use
when you're talking about addictions or bad habits.
Stop smoking cigarettes, it's bad for your health!
I wish you'd stop biting your nails, it's gross!
Do you have a bad habit that you know you should
stop doing?
Write a sentence about it in the comments below.
Make sure you use the gerund form, right?
Okay so there's a quick ad break right now,
just enough time for you to write your sentence
before we move on to 'stop' with the infinitive form.
'stop' with the to-infinitive means to pause
or leave one action to do another.
Stop to buy bread from the supermarket.
So this is also an order or an instruction but it's
to stop at the supermarket as you go past
and get some bread.
So you stop the action of walking or driving by.
You interrupt that action
to go and buy some bread from the supermarket
but then you would continue back on your journey.
So let's talk about a few more examples.
Make sure you stop to talk to Sara
before you leave work today,
she's got something important to tell you.
I worked all day, I didn't even stop to eat lunch!
Okay, great!
So 'stop' followed by a gerund
has a completely different meaning
to 'stop' followed by the to-infinitive.
Now do all verbs change meaning when
they're followed by a gerund or an infinitive?
That's a good question but the answer is no.
Some verbs keep the same meaning
if they're followed by a gerund or the to-infinitive.
Let's take a look at the word 'start'.
We start eating dinner at seven.
We start to eat dinner at seven.
Is there a big difference in meaning
between these two sentences?
So how do you know which verbs change meaning
when followed by a gerund or an infinitive?
Now the answer is not as simple as you want it to be.
You need to learn them.
You need to study, get familiar with different
verb patterns and practise using them.
The more you see and use these verb patterns,
the more naturally you'll start to use them.
But to get you started I've got some more
common verbs and their meanings
when they're followed by a gerund or an infinitive verb.
So don't stop watching,
it's just getting interesting!
I'll never forget watching my first horror movie...
Don't forget to watch the news tonight!
Do these verb patterns have the same meaning?
No, not at all!
'forget' with a gerund means to look back
at past memories.
I'll never forget watching my first horror movie...
I was so scared that I couldn't sleep for weeks!
I wish I could forget falling down the stairs
in front of the whole school.
So let's try this together,
do you have an embarrassing memory that you wish
you could forget?
Write a sentence in the comments below
so that I can check it for you.
Now 'forget' with the to-infinitive is used
to give a reminder to someone,
to make sure that they do something,
that they don't forget.
Don't forget to watch the news tonight!
I was interviewed on the main street today,
so I don't want you to miss it!
Don't forget to bring your tickets,
otherwise, they won't let you in to the show!
Do you remember dancing with me on our first date?
Remember to take lots of pictures on your trip.
Do you notice any similarities between
'forget' and 'remember'?
'remember' with a gerund is used to talk about
is used to talk about a memory.
What do you remember about your first date?
I remember eating ribs covered in
sticky sauce with my hands!
Thanks Shah!
It was really awkward I had sticky stuff
coming all the way down my arms.
What do you remember about your first date?
Write it in the comments.
Now remember with the to-infinitive
is used to talk about something
that someone needs to do to remind them
to do something.
Remember to whisk the eggs before adding the sugar.
Remember to turn at the intersection,
otherwise, you'll get stuck on a one-way road.
The verb 'regret' with a gerund is used to talk about
something that you did in the past,
that you aren't happy about anymore.
You know, decisions that you made in the past that you
wish you didn't make.
When you wish you could go back in time
and change those actions.
He regretted yelling at her as soon as she walked away.
He woke up with a pounding headache and immediately
regretted drinking so much the night before.
What do you wish you could go back in time and change
Can you write a sentence about it?
Add it to the comments.
Now 'regret' with the to-infinitive
is used to tell someone bad news
or something that they don't want to hear.
And this verb pattern is really formal language.
And it's always followed by bad news.
So these are the words that you don't want to hear
after a job interview.
I regret to say that I wasn't impressed
by the performance.
We regret to inform you that you have ten days left
to pay the account, otherwise, we'll close it.
We missed our bus which meant waiting six
hours until the next one.
Did you mean to miss the meeting this morning?
So when 'mean' is followed by a gerund,
it's used to talk about
what the response or the result of something is.
Make sure you bring your jacket or it will mean getting
really wet and cold.
Visiting my sister in London means spending
eight hours on a plane.
'mean' with the to-infinitive is used
when you intend or you plan to do something.
So when it's used in the past tense,
this verb is especially useful for excuses.
I meant to call you last night, but I totally forgot!
She meant to put sugar in your coffee,
but she accidentally added salt.
So now that you've had plenty of practice
with gerunds and infinitives,
it's time to move on to a new lesson.
Don't stop watching yet.
Try these lessons right here
and remember to subscribe to my channel
just down here and don't forget
to share this video using the share button
just down there.
See you in the next lesson!




1869 タグ追加 保存
Emily 2018 年 11 月 5 日 に公開
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