字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント On behalf of our President and CEO, Greg Case, and our chief marketing officer, Phil Clement, it's a real honor for Aon to be the sponsor of this event today. And for many of you, you might know that Aon is now a UK-based company, but it's also important for you to know that the Aon Foundation, for the past 25 years, has made it a priority to support educational activities and cultural institutions like the Chicago Humanities Festival and the Charter Humanist Circle, that does so much to enrich the lives of all of us in this room and everybody in Chicago. And even though we're now in the UK, I want everybody in this room to know that we intend to continue this commitment, and it will remain high on our priority list for the things we do to support the community of Chicago for many years to come. [applause] On behalf of my colleagues at Aon, I want to thank the Charter Humanist Circle and its members for their very valuable support, and I also want to thank Northwestern University Law School for allowing us to use the auditorium today. At Aon, we believe in the mantra "If we can't measure it, we don't do it." And because of that, it's a real honor for us to be here supporting and introducing Dr. Philip Kotler. Dr. Kotler has defined marketing as "the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit." He is recognized around the world as one of the foremost experts on business, of marketing, and for his insights on how exemplary marketing has the creativity and the power to influence global consumers every day. In that spirit, I hope you'll join me in welcoming Dr. Philip Kotler. [applause] Now before I turn the microphone over to Dr. Kotler, in the spirit of marketing, maybe many of you in this room know that Aon does a great many things globally, but one of the things that we've done that has created tremendous brand awareness for our firm is our sponsorship of Manchester United football team, which by today won 2 to 1 versus Arsenal [applause] We're at-- Right now we're at the top of the premiere league. So in that spirit, [laughter] I would like to present Dr. Kotler with his very own, personalized Manchester United shirt. [applause] [Kolter]: Thank you. David, thank you very much. And I will wear this, in a fantasy way. [laughter] May I say, I really appreciate your introduction. Of all the introductions I've received, yours is the most recent. [laughter] Nation, nation... Oh, you may know of Steven Colbert, so I can't pull it off the same way. There will be two groups, with respect to marketing. There will be a group that doesn't like marketing, and I'm going to give you why they don't like marketing and the justifications. I will also tell you there's another group who loves marketing, so before we're through, you will be totally confused, or at least opinionated. So, what I want to do is tell you that-- These are called confessions of a marketer. That's, by the way, borrowed from David Ogilvy, who wrote a wonderful book called "Confessions of an Advertising Man." And let me move on and say why is marketing a topic for the humanities? And we would say that there's a couple of reasons. One: I regard marketing as a humanistic subject because marketing has affected our lifestyles; has created, not only affected a lifestyle, but created lifestyles, and we should be, from a point of view of popular interest, interested in that. And it really-- I want to say that marketing is very American, that it's beginnings are very American. That doesn't mean there weren't manifestations of marketing earlier, and as a matter of fact, I'd like to give you a very short history of marketing, so that you understand what we mean by the word. As a matter of fact, if you took a dictionary, a Webster's dictionary, in the year 1900, and looked up the word marketing, you would not find it in the dictionary. Yes, you would find the word market, but not the word marketing. If you then picked a dictionary... 1910. You would find the word marketing in it, because marketing is about 100 years old. And it's much more than selling. So let me show you... Let's start... Let's start biblically. [laughter] Let's start biblically. Who is the marketer in this picture? This is the biblical narrative. Who was the first marketer in the world? I hear Eve... The snake. I hate to admit it, because snake sounds like sneaky, and so on and so forth. But the fact is that it was the snake who sold Eve on getting Adam to eat an apple. So it goes way back. At least selling goes way back. Now let's go further. Here is the father of marketing. Wow, what an insult to him! [laughter] I mean, that's Aristotle. Recently I was at a group, little party, and we were speculating who we would like to meet most if we had an hour with such a person, and it boiled down to Plato, Socrates, or Aristotle. That's a hard one. It turns out that my vote went for Aristotle. Aristotle was Google, at the time. He knew more about everything than anyone in the world. He wrote on science, politics, economics, rhetoric, art, and everything. Now, why do I say that he had some marketing impact? Let me read the definition of rhetoric. He's not the founder of rhetoric, by the way. The founders were the sophists, around 600 B.C. They were a group who wanted to use selling and speech and persuasion for their own devious ends. But Aristotle put the i-- the discipline of rhetoric on its feet. Rhetoric is the art that aims to improve the facility of speakers or writers who attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. It is the faculty of the observing, in any given case, the available means of persuasion. So, in a sense, he could be the father of selling. The idea of getting someone to do something that they might not have done otherwise. So, let's move on, about other early manifestations of marketing. I know many of you cannot necessarily read this, so I will read it, but the first department store opened when, and in what country? Normally if you're in France and you ask the question, they would say of course we invented the department store. It was about 1845. The same time we invented paperweights and some other things. But it turns out that the first department store was in Japan. Mitsui company, which is still alive and well. So that's where one of our retailing forms started. The next one is the first newspaper that carried an ad. There were newspapers early, but the first ad appeared in England, in 1652, and it advertised coffee. And then, the first ad agency started a little later. Well, much later. N.W. Ayer, which is still a prosperous advertising agency. First time a brand was put on a commodity, the commodity being soap, the brand name was Pear's soap. And then the first packaging appeared a little later, and finally we had a marketing research department formed. So, now the word markets has been around all these years. The Middle Ages had markets. In fact, whenever-- I would even say the agora, in ancient Greece-- that means the marketplace-- In ancient Greece, people would come on a particular day to sell things. In the Middle Ages, there were market days. The word marketing wasn't there. It was just market. And trade was always there, because trade, through history, has taken place between people and regions and countries. So all that is there, and it was in the decade of the 1900s that marketing books first appeared. And the interesting thing is who wrote those first marketing books. Were they sociologists? What was the discipline of the people who wrote the first marketing books? Any guesses? They weren't physicists or chemists. They were economists. So why would economists start a subject called marketing? And the answer is: they were disillusioned economists. [laughter] They couldn't find any mention of advertising in the discourse of economists. In other words, never did Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, even Alfred Marshall, and so on, they rarely talked about other forces that shaped demand. The only force that shaped demand in their mind was price. You know the famous curve. Raise the price, demand will go down, lower the price, you can sell more. Price was the only thing that affected demand. So these economists, or institutional economists, said "Hey, you've got to factor in advertising." You've got to factor in retail stores, whole sales, jobbers, agents. And it was the neglect of the classical economists to not really texture the marketplace and the way an economy worked that led to marketing. So marketing is technically a branch of economics. Now who helped developed this field of marketing? Now, probably you don't recognize maybe anyone here. There's one person you might recognize. I don't know if you can see some of these faces, but someone recognize anyone there? Yeah. Dale Carnegie. Dale Carnegie is here, and his book was "How to Win Friends and Influence People," because in doing this, I wanted to find out who was the exemplar of the selling method. "How to Win Friends and Influence People" But let me give you the whole picture. Ernest Dichter. Some of you may know of. He was a motivational psychologist, and he could explain why people didn't like to eat prunes, why cigars were offending some people, and all kinds of things. And his book called "The Study of Desire." He apparently studied with Sigmund Freud, and he brought that kind of mind to marketing. But he had an opponent named Alfred Pollitz, who was not a head shrinker--We call him a... a nose counter. The expressions we would use if you were very psychological, you were a head shrinker, and otherwise, you were a nose counter. Namely, a surveyor. You surveyed-- You found out what percentage of people were of a certain age and why did they buy a particular product. Julius Rosenwald was very much behind the formation of the Sears company, which was a important episode in the development of our retail chains. Lester Wunderman deserves credit as exemplifying the use of direct mail and catalogs. That you can sell more directly. You don't have to be in the store. You can get people to order goods by mail and phone. David Ogilvy is the exemplar advertising person, then Stanley Marcus, of Neiman Marcus, was a fella who could walk into any retail store and give them 100 suggestions on how to improve the layout, the size of the aisles, and make a difference in the voulme of business. Edward Bernays is the father of public relations in the United States. His name has sort of become obscure, but he really was a very important person. The word propaganda was often used in connection with his work, because people thought it was a model to motivate you to feel a certain way about anything, regardless of the standards involved. And then there's Dale Carnegie. In any case, how did marketing get its start? Marketing got its start in sales departments. Every company has a sales group. And the sales people really want to be in the office of a customer, because that's the only way something happens. So they don't want to do a lot of homework. For example, three things they didn't want to do. They didn't want to do consumer research in a systematic way, because that's taking their time away from selling to customers. Secondly, they would've liked someone else to find leads. Now a lead means a prospect. In fact, we distinguish between a hot lead: "Oh boy, he's ready to buy. He even called us to buy." a warm lead, a cold lead, so on. Someone else should do that for the sales people, so they don't waste their time making calls. And the third thing was someone had to prepare brochures and ads. And the salesman is not skilled. The salesperson isn't skilled at communicating through advertising and brochures. So sales departments added three people, or hired them from time to time. Later on, it exploded to the day today, when we have multinationals running-- with marketing-- In other words, marketing-- Those three people split from sales and became big enough to become its own department. And so, some people in the audience here may be a chief marketing officer. The old name was Vice President of marketing, but I like the name chief marketing officer because that person now is part of the chief officers. Chief information officer, chief financial officer, chief innovation officer, and the status has moved up. Some of you may be brand managers, may have been in your past experience. Category managers, market segment managers, managing distribution channels, like retail or wholesale things, pricing manager, communication manager, database manager, direct marketers, internet people, and so on.