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  • NARRATOR: Tutankhamun's spectacular treasures.

  • Now, for the first time since they were discovered,

  • all 5,398 objects are being brought together in

  • a new $1-billion museum.

  • This will be the first time many of them have been seen for a century.

  • SALIMA: Look at the horse. Look at the horse, look at the horse!

  • NARRATOR: Scientists have been using the latest imaging and forensic technology

  • to unlock long buried mysteries to reveal the man behind the mask.

  • ECKMANN: So many tiny details are visible again.

  • NARRATOR: Now some of Tutankhamun's most personal items suggest a pharaoh who

  • was wracked by illness.

  • And mysterious remains buried alongside him expose the dark secrets of his

  • royal family tree.

  • HUTAN: He had a child with his own sister.

  • NARRATOR: Together, they suggest Tutankhamun and his

  • family were destined to die out.

  • What was left behind, are the magnificent treasures of a spectacular legacy.

  • Tutankhamun was the last pharaoh of his royal family line.

  • He died at age 19 leaving no heirs.

  • And within decades Tutankhamun's dynasty collapsed and

  • disappeared from history.

  • Ancient Egyptian records ceased to even mention the boy king.

  • Tutankhamun, his father, and his successor were erased from official history.

  • But experts have questioned how the most famous king of ancient Egypt and his whole

  • family could have disappeared without a trace.

  • Now, the most comprehensive forensic examinations of Tutankhamun's treasures are

  • helping unravel the mystery.

  • And it's the most personal items, many never seen before, that have shed remarkable new

  • light on Tutankhamun's short, troubled life.

  • Custom made shoes, unlike any others from ancient Egypt.

  • A hoard of walking sticks hidden for decades in the basement of the Cairo Museum.

  • And the most unexpected and unsettling discovery in the pharaoh's tomb...

  • two tiny human mummies that were buried with him.

  • The evidence produced by these finds reveal a life wracked with pain and

  • tragic personal loss.

  • A complex and disturbing family tree and political battles that sentenced the

  • young pharaoh to 3,000 years of oblivion.

  • Gathered from museum across Egypt, all of Tutankhamun's items are now on their way to

  • be reunited at the new Grand Egyptian Museum for the first time since

  • Howard Carter opened the young pharaoh's tomb in 1922.

  • More than 5,000 objects were discovered, but only a few have been on display...

  • until now.

  • Egyptologist Chris Naunton is one of the first people to witness some of the objects

  • that have been hidden in the vaults of the old Cairo Museum for nearly a century.

  • -A lot of these things are going to be seen for the first time here in

  • the Grand Egyptian Museum.

  • But before they go on display here they are all being all looked at,

  • assessed for their state of conservation and where work is required,

  • that work is happening here.

  • NARRATOR: For scientists, it's a once in a lifetime opportunity to analyze all the

  • objects up close before the new museum opens to the public.

  • Among the thousands of artifacts, there was one discovery that disturbed

  • Carter more than any other.

  • He recorded it in his journals, now kept at the Griffith Institute

  • in Oxford, England.

  • -This section of the published report deals with perhaps the most poignant

  • objects that Carter came across in the tomb.

  • Inside the treasury he found the evidence that Tutankhamun had not been buried alone.

  • NARRATOR: Piled among gilded shrines and treasure chests,

  • in a plain and undecorated box,

  • lay two miniature sarcophagi.

  • Inside these coffins were two tiny mummified skeletons.

  • -It's quite clear that this had quite an effect on Carter himself and

  • that's evident from what he wrote about them.

  • He says, 'These pathetic remains give much food for thought.

  • With little doubt, they were the offspring of Tutankhamun, although there is nothing to

  • tell us emphatically.'

  • NARRATOR: To Carter, they were a mystery neither he nor technology could answer

  • at the time.

  • Now Egyptologists are using forensic science and DNA analysis to reveal

  • the true story of the child mummies.

  • Among them is Manar el Khial, a conservator at the new Grand Egyptian Museum.

  • It's the first time she's seen the tiny coffins the mummies were buried in.

  • -Among many other things have been discovered in his tomb these are particularly

  • interesting because they look very beautiful and well preserved.

  • It's also the first time for me to see coffins for baby mummies.

  • NARRATOR: But the skeletons of the babies found in these coffins

  • weren't fully developed.

  • They were two premature stillborn girls.

  • But who were they?

  • And why were they buried in Tutankhamun's tomb?

  • It took 21st century DNA technology to provide an answer to this

  • 3,000-year-old-mystery.

  • Thousands of miles away from Egypt's sand and dust in the mountains of

  • Bolzano, Italy at the Eurac Institute for Mummy Studies...

  • biological anthropologist Albert Zink spent a decade perfecting scientific tools to

  • study ancient remains.

  • His research included the first ever DNA study of 11 mummies of Tutankhamun's

  • royal dynasty, found in the Valley of the Kings tombs.

  • And it was the two still born babies that were the most intriguing.

  • ALBERT: It was a big mystery, and nobody really knew whether these two children were his

  • own or whether they were put in as a kind of offering for his afterlife.

  • NARRATOR: Dr. Zink set out to recreate Tutankhamun's genetic map and

  • determine his relationship to these mummies.

  • But it was a task with some serious challenges.

  • -That's a quite complicated and complex process because the DNA,

  • the genetic information in a human body, it degrades after somebody dies.

  • And it degrades quite quickly.

  • It depends for sure on the temperature, the humidity, the environment.

  • NARRATOR: Zink finally managed to extract enough precious DNA from these still

  • born fetuses to compare it with the DNA of Tutankhamun.

  • The results suggested these babies could have been the future

  • of Tutankhamun's dynasty.

  • -The few markers we had, they showed some similarity to the markers

  • in king Tutankhamun,

  • so it's still likely that they are related to him; that these two fetuses

  • are his own children.

  • NARRATOR: Zink's results suggest that Tutankhamun, the most powerful man in Egypt,

  • could have been a grieving father.

  • But now for the conservators of the Grand Egyptian Museum another

  • tragedy is unfolding.

  • The babies could soon be lost forever.

  • It's now believed that having lost his only two children,

  • Tutankhamun was buried with their mummified remains in his tomb,

  • to be reunited with them in the afterlife.

  • After Howard Carter discovered them in 1922 he stored the fetuses

  • in a local hospital,

  • where they remained hidden in a drawer for almost 100 years.

  • But atmospheric conditions have taken their toll on these tiny bodies.

  • Now, the two stillborn baby girls are in an extremely fragile state.

  • -It's too bad. It's too bad.

  • Their condition is poor.

  • And they may have been invaded by insects.

  • NARRATOR: After so long hidden away,

  • they need urgent help, otherwise they could turn to dust.

  • -It is very important to preserve all our cultural heritage but for these fetuses

  • it is very important to preserve them because they consist of organic materials.

  • The organic materials are very sensitive to environmental changes.

  • And they can be invaded by living organisms that can eat these organic materials and

  • finish them all.

  • NARRATOR: The challenge for the conservators is to stop the decay

  • before it's too late.

  • -Their condition is getting worse every day, this is really bad.

  • It's very, very sad for me.

  • NARRATOR: For the director of the Grand Egyptian Museum, Tarek Tawfik,

  • the next stage will be crucial.

  • TAREK: We need now to see how we will deal with this decay,

  • how can we can move this very fragile fetuses

  • in order not to lose any of the archaeological substance.

  • So, it's a very sensitive operation.

  • NARRATOR: Tutankhamun suffered the private tragedy of losing two children before

  • they were born.

  • But it wasn't the pharaoh's only misfortune.

  • NARRATOR: At the new Grand Egyptian Museum outside Cairo, the health of Tutankhamun more

  • than 3,000 years ago, is taking center stage.

  • SALIMA: Oh nice!

  • (inaudible)

  • NARRATOR: Egyptologists Salima Ikram and

  • Andre Veldmeijer are now in the fortified storerooms

  • to examine some of Tutankhamun's 130 walking sticks found in the tomb.

  • Many of these haven't been seen for a century.

  • SALIMA: This one is a more fancy one, with a bit more gold.

  • NARRATOR: These everyday belongings of Tutankhamun give a rare glimpse into

  • how he actually lived.

  • -They really are one sort of little window into understanding what this man

  • was all about.

  • NARRATOR: Salima and Andre are looking for signs of wear to better

  • understand if and how these sticks were used.

  • -Because these sticks have been conserved, it's sometimes a bit difficult to tell

  • exactly how they have been used,

  • because traces of sweat or person's oils have been obscured

  • by the conservation process that Carter used.

  • NARRATOR: Despite some lost clues, there's still evidence of wear and tear

  • that could suggest the young king used the sticks.

  • A lot.

  • -On the base you can often see on the tip whether things were used or not.

  • And maybe some of these tips been replaced even during the course

  • of Tutankhamun's life.

  • Sometimes the tips of these ones have sort of worn off, but you can see the variety of

  • ends used, so maybe some of the end tell us about the function,

  • so maybe some were designed for 'in the palace', some were designed 'in the temple'

  • others were designed for walking through sand, which would in fact require a far

  • more sturdier stick, because you depend upon it more, even if you are

  • completely able bodied.

  • NARRATOR: With signs of wear, could these sticks be evidence that Tutankhamun

  • was an infirm king?

  • Other items from the tomb seem to hint at a king who was not as mobile as a healthy

  • teenager should be.

  • An inlayed storage box from Tutankhamun's treasure trove, one of the finest examples of

  • ancient craftsmanship, suggests he did need extra support.

  • -It's an image of Tutankhamun himself with his wife Ankhesanamun crouching

  • at his feet and the king his drawing back an arrow.

  • But he is doing it from a seated position.

  • And it somehow doesn't feel quite right.

  • And there is another very beautiful image of the king and his wife on the lid of

  • this box as well and in that case is shown leaning on a kind of walking stick.

  • This is not the portrayal of a vigorous, athletic, young pharaoh.

  • It's a portrayal of somebody who is perhaps a little bit more vulnerable

  • and weaker than that, somehow.

  • NARRATOR: This walking stick could be one of those now undergoing examination at the

  • Grand Egyptian Museum.

  • So what condition could have caused the young king to walk with a stick?

  • More items recently restored could hold a clue.

  • Andre has been working for the last seven years on sandals belonging to Tutankhamun.

  • ANDRE: This is the big surprise, then?

  • -Yes, you can see it now.

  • -Wow. That is an amazing piece of work.

  • NARRATOR: These sandals have been rescued from almost complete disintegration.

  • -And the gold bosses.

  • Sweet piece of work.

  • NARRATOR: More than 80 pairs of shoes were discovered in Tutankhamun's tomb.

  • From childhood sandals to grown man's shoes, it's one of the world's biggest

  • collections of ancient footwear.

  • But over 3,000 years of humidity has taken its toll.

  • It melted the leather and the gold decorations fell apart on the majority

  • of the sandals.

  • The shoes have been painstakingly pieced back together,

  • and the design reveals some unusual features.

  • -Tutankhamun had three pairs of open shoes in his tomb.

  • And they are special mainly for the fact that they have additional ways of keeping

  • them close to the foot, that they would fit very nicely.

  • It has a strap between the first and the second toe and in addition to that

  • a strap going over the foot, as if the shoe wasn't really fitting on the foot.

  • NARRATOR: They're unlike anything Andre has ever seen from ancient Egypt.

  • Normally, just like modern flip flops, traditional Egyptian sandals had one strap

  • between the first and second toe.

  • -But apparently here it didn't work so they needed something extra to let someone,

  • the owner, the king of course, be able to walk properly.

  • NARRATOR: Andre believes that without the straps the shoe may have

  • fallen off Tutankhamun's foot.

  • But why did he need specially adapted shoes?

  • What was wrong with the young king's feet?

  • A clue to this puzzle lies in the remains of Tutankhamun himself,

  • in the desert sands more than 400 miles south of Cairo.

  • He was buried in the Valley of the Kings, near the ancient capital of Thebes,

  • now modern-day Luxor.

  • Carved into the desert rock, it's the final resting place of many

  • great Egyptian pharaohs.

  • The mummy of Tutankhamun lies where Carter first discovered

  • it a century ago,

  • in a small and unassuming tomb.

  • And the body displays a number of unusual features.

  • -Tutankhamun has been subjected to numerous anatomical investigations

  • over the years.

  • He's been photographed, x-rayed, CT scanned.

  • And all of these things have shown us anomalies which you wouldn't expect to see

  • in the body of a fit 19-year-old.

  • And his feet are of a particular interest to us here.

  • The left foot is rotated inwards, and the second toe is missing a bone which suggests

  • that he might have been suffering from some sort of inherited genetic illness.

  • And if we are right interpreting it this way then he was suffering from what we

  • know as club foot.

  • -Tutankhamun was probably in quite a lot of pain, more or less constantly and

  • he would have had difficulty walking