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  • NARRATOR: Tutankhamun's spectacular treasures...

  • Now, for the first time since they were discovered, all 5,398 objects

  • are being brought together in a new $1 billion museum.

  • This will be the first time many of them have been seen for a century.

  • SALIMA: Look at the horse. Look at the horse, look at the horse!

  • NARRATOR: Scientists have been using the latest imaging and forensic technology

  • to unlock long buried mysteries...

  • to reveal the man behind the mask.

  • CHRISTIAN: So many tiny details are visible again.

  • -This wasn't just a hoard of treasure, it was a veritable arsenal.

  • NARRATOR: Not of a boy king...

  • but a warrior on a global stage.

  • Egypt's spectacular Tutankhamun.

  • He's the most famous, most studied pharaoh in history.

  • But even today, Tutankhamun's treasures still have much to reveal.

  • Now, the most comprehensive forensic examination of all Tutankhamun's

  • 5,000 treasures is underway.

  • And several key objects have captured experts' attention.

  • At the heart of the investigation...

  • A mysterious dagger found on Tutankhamun's mummified body...

  • Priceless golden chariot decorations painstakingly reconstructed after resting in

  • fragments for three and half thousand years...

  • And the leather remains of a strange armored tunic.

  • These three treasures will tell us much more about the real Tutankhamun.

  • Not as a boy, but as a warrior.

  • It's a new chapter in a story that began in the Valley of the Kings,

  • on the afternoon of November 26th, 1922.

  • In the barren desert west of the Nile, British archaeologist Howard Carter

  • made the greatest archaeological discovery of all time.

  • The almost completely intact tomb of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh.

  • Tutankhamun.

  • Egyptologist Dr. Chris Naunton has been given a rare

  • chance to get up close to Howard Carter's personal

  • account of the momentous discovery.

  • -This is Howard Carter's journal and it's amazing for me to see this because this,

  • it really is as close as you get to the very moment that Carter looked on this

  • incredible haul of objects for the very first time.

  • NARRATOR: This meticulously handwritten entry records Carter's astonishment as he

  • peered inside the tomb...

  • becoming the first person to gaze on its wonders for three and a half thousand years.

  • -Says, 'The interior of the chamber gradually loomed before one with it's strange

  • and wonderful medley of extraordinary and beautiful objects heaped

  • upon one another.

  • When Lord Carnarvon said to me 'can you see anything?'

  • I replied to him, 'Yes, it is wonderful'.

  • NARRATOR: Tutankhamen's treasures captivated the world.

  • In the months and years following their discovery, they were painstakingly

  • excavated and transferred to the Cairo Museum.

  • Since then, millions of visitors have marveled at many of the

  • items found in Tutankhamun's tomb.

  • These iconic treasures paint a picture of a pampered boy king who died tragically young.

  • This is the Tutankhamun every school child knows.

  • A boy too young to rule.

  • An emotionally and physically weak puppet ruler.

  • But this image is based on the tiny handful of Tutankhamun's treasures on

  • display in the Cairo museum, that make up just a fraction of the

  • 5,000 objects found in Tutankhamun's burial chamber.

  • The rest have been locked away in the museum's basement, until now.

  • The new Grand Egyptian Museum is now gathering together all of Tutankhamun's treasures

  • with the aim of putting the whole collection on display for the first

  • time since their discovery in 1922.

  • The treasures in these boxes will shed new light on the story of Tutankhamun.

  • Thousands of objects were simply packed away when they were first unearthed

  • and have never been studied or analyzed.

  • But now, in the cutting-edge labs and store rooms of the Grand Egyptian Museum,

  • all this is about to change.

  • Behind this unassuming door lies an Egyptologist's paradise.

  • -Wow.

  • -Welcome to storage 93, especially for artifacts of Tutankhamun.

  • NARRATOR: Filled with priceless treasures and dripping with gold,

  • in this room Tutankhamun's prized possessions are being brought together,

  • to be stored and conserved in climate-controlled conditions.

  • -There's some boats. Some staffs. There are beds.

  • NARRATOR: Chris Naunton is one of a tiny handful of experts to gain entry.

  • -This is a super exciting moment to be here, to see all of this material

  • being readied for exhibition in the new museum.

  • It's once in a lifetime kind of chance to see this.

  • NARRATOR: The last time these treasures were together was inside Tutankhamun's tomb.

  • Professor Salima Ikram believes it's only now, by seeing the treasures together,

  • that Egyptologists can begin to tell the full story of the pharaoh's life.

  • SALIMA: There is so much material in the tomb of Tutankhamun.

  • It's really a bit like an attic, where, you know, people's mothers had put all

  • of their bits and pieces so that they have their memories; they have their entire life

  • encapsulated from babyhood onwards.

  • And Tutankhamun's tomb is like opening up his attic and being able to see

  • inside his past life.

  • NARRATOR: Seen together, Tutankhamun's treasures are now painting

  • a radical new portrait.

  • Not the boy king as many had thought,

  • this is Tutankhamun the warrior king.

  • -Inside the tomb Howard Carter found six chariots, seven throw sticks,

  • four daggers, dozens of bows, hundreds of arrows, eight shields and a unique

  • and sophisticated set of armor.

  • So this wasn't just a hoard of treasure, it was a veritable arsenal of weapons.

  • NARRATOR: But these weren't the toys of a boy king,

  • it would seem they were the weapons of a man.

  • -People romantically call Tutankhamun the boy king and that's because he

  • came to throne when he was nine and half, but he died when he was about 19.

  • And by the age of 14 in ancient Egypt you were a man.

  • So really, it's more of a romantic myth calling him the boy king because he really was

  • a proper, truly grown up king.

  • NARRATOR: Today, this king's story is being rewritten by the artifacts

  • he took to the afterlife.

  • And there's one treasure Tutankhamun seems to have valued highly.

  • Tucked away in a corner of the Cairo Museum lies a small dagger with a big secret.

  • The latest technology has revealed startling new information about this weapon,

  • soon to be moved to the Grand Egyptian Museum.

  • Information that is out of this world.

  • NARRATOR: The sheer scale of Tutankhamun's treasures is breathtaking.

  • From golden effigies to elaborate beds, to simple items of clothing.

  • But Tutankhamun was also buried with an arsenal of weapons.

  • -Just drawer, after drawer, after drawer all containing arrows.

  • This entire section just for this one kind of object.

  • It's amazing.

  • NARRATOR: In this second millennia BC stockpile, there's one weapon that

  • Tutankhamun seemed to have highly treasured.

  • Since its discovery, this spectacular dagger has been on display in the Cairo Museum.

  • Tucked away in a corner, passed by as visitors flock

  • to Tutankhamun's big-ticket treasures.

  • -It might not be the most famous object that was discovered in the tomb,

  • but I think this dagger is one of the most interesting.

  • NARRATOR: This deadly weapon contains a secret that's been hidden in

  • plain sight for nearly a century.

  • Now the dagger has been reanalyzed to reveal Tutankhamun as a warrior,

  • hungry for power, in this world and beyond.

  • The dagger was found inside Tutankhamun's coffin.

  • It was resting directly on his body.

  • -This was one of the most important objects for Tutankhamun it seems.

  • It was found very close to the mummy just above the king's abdomen.

  • NARRATOR: It's clear there was something special about this dagger to Tutankhamun.

  • And there's no doubting its beauty.

  • -Its handle is extremely finely decorated in gold, and these bands,

  • which are inlaid with precious materials, the pommel at the end is made of rock crystal,

  • this sheath made of beaten gold is decorated with this very intricate floral pattern.

  • NARRATOR: But Tutankhamun's tomb was dripping in gold and gems.

  • So why was this dagger buried inside his coffin on his body?

  • What made it so precious?

  • The answer lies in the dagggers blade.

  • -Perhaps the most interesting aspect of it actually is the blade, which is made of iron.

  • NARRATOR: Iron is one of the most common elements on Earth.

  • But in Tutankhamun's Egypt iron was rarer than gold.

  • -Three and a half thousand years ago iron was almost non-existent in Egypt,

  • we don't get any archaeological evidence for iron smelting in this part of

  • the world until the 6th century BC.

  • NARRATOR: That's 800 years after Tutankhamun died.

  • The iron in the dagger's blade wasn't mined or smelted in Egypt.

  • So where did it come from?

  • The mystery has puzzled experts since the dagger's discovery nearly a century ago.

  • But until recently, there was no way to know where the iron in the blade came from,

  • without destroying it.

  • Now thanks to the use of advanced non-destructive x-ray analysis,

  • curators can shed new light on this ancient mystery.

  • Because there's more than iron in this blade.

  • -This technique allows us to see the kind of unique chemical fingerprint of the

  • blade of this dagger.

  • And crucially it tells us the percentage of the various different elements.

  • NARRATOR: Iron occurs in nature mixed with other elements,

  • and this mixture is unique to each source of the metal.

  • By identifying the blade's unique chemical fingerprint,

  • the curators have been able to pinpoint its origin.

  • NARRATOR: The machine fires high energy x-rays into the dagger blade.

  • And it's the energy reflected back that reveals the elements contained inside.

  • -Okay.

  • NARRATOR: What the curators found was the proportion of nickel was unusually high.

  • -What does this tell us about the kind of iron that was used to make this dagger?

  • NARRATOR: There's no match on Earth for the iron in this dagger.

  • -If this iron doesn't come from this planet where does it come from?

  • -From a meteorite?

  • NARRATOR: The iron in Tutankhamun's dagger is extra-terrestrial.

  • Its journey began thousands, perhaps millions of ago.

  • From the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter 250 million miles away,

  • a lump of rock and metal plummeted, faster than a bullet toward Earth.

  • It slammed into the planet's surface, shattering into fragments of molten iron.

  • Somewhere in the sands of Africa these fragments lay for thousands,

  • even millions of years, until they were found and collected to be melted.

  • Forged and crafted into an object of rare beauty and power.

  • The iron in this dagger has been on an extraordinary journey.

  • Egyptologist, Aidan Dodson believes Tutankhamun knew this iron fell

  • from the heavens.

  • -Back 1,500 or 2,000 years earlier than Tutankhamun, they talk about iron from the

  • sky as being a somewhat miraculous material.

  • The iron has a power.

  • It's from, it's from the gods.

  • NARRATOR: To Tutankhamun, the dagger must have seemed like a gift from the gods.

  • Now, another hidden set of artifacts, not seen in their original glory for three and

  • half thousand years, are shedding new light on Tutankhamun's ambition.

  • A unique combination of images that display him as a powerful ruler of not just Egypt,

  • but the world.

  • iots to the afterlife, carefully dismantled and

  • stacked in his tomb's ante-chamber.

  • When Howard Carter discovered the tomb, he found at least

  • 1,500 tiny gold flakes under the chariot.

  • He didn't have the technology to deal with these bewildering metal fragments.

  • So he put them in a box in the hope that someone in the future might.

  • Now, decades later, these gold fragments have been finally reassembled.

  • World-renowned gold conservator Dr. Christian Eckmann has been piecing

  • the flakes together.

  • His work reveals a series of stunning images that show Tutankhamun

  • at the center of the world.

  • -So many tiny details are visible again,

  • which were not visible when they were excavated.

  • NARRATOR: Eckmann discovered these gold fragments are parts of golden panels

  • once used as decorations on the harnesses and trappings of Tutankhamun's chariots.

  • These bewildering, fragile jigsaw puzzles,

  • have so far taken three years to piece together.

  • -So every single piece, which we could reattach to the gold sheet

  • is another part of a huge puzzle.

  • But still there are missing pieces and we try of course now to fix

  • those little things back to its original position.

  • NARRATOR: Eckmann has pieced together at least 70 intricately embossed

  • gold panels, made to decorate six leather chariot harnesses.

  • And they would have made a powerful impression on everyone who saw them.

  • These images haven't been seen since the doors were sealed on Tutankhamun's tomb

  • three and a half thousand years ago.

  • For Egyptologist professor Salima Ikram interpreting them is an incredible privilege.

  • -This material is fabulous because it's never been on display before even though it

  • is from the tomb of the most famous king, Tutankhamun.

  • NARRATOR: Salima has been decoding these images, designs that reveal Tutankhamun's

  • ambitions stretched far beyond Egypt's borders.

  • -The Tutankhamun chariot leather is unusual because it doesn't just have normal

  • Egyptian propaganda imagery.

  • At first glance you think oh this is just sort of animals fighting amongst themselves

  • but then you realize that there's a griffon involved,

  • which is a near eastern animal, some of the plants

  • used are very much in a Syrian tradition,

  • and then you have this running spiral, which is Aegean.

  • So you've got this cocktail of great empires

  • and great artistic traditions coming together.

  • NARRATOR: These foreign designs were deliberately chosen to present

  • Tutankhamun as a player on an international stage,

  • and the most powerful ruler in the ancient world.

  • -This combination of styles seems to emphasize the fact that he wanted to show that he

  • had very long reaching arms of power as it were and he could control

  • all sorts of places and people.

  • NARRATOR: The gold decorations from the harnesses suggest Tutankhamun wanted

  • to be seen as an international statesman.

  • And a chariot about to be moved to the Grand Egyptian Museum shows just

  • how far he was prepared to go in pursuit of that power.

  • -So, this chariot is going to be 3D scanned today.

  • And so the first thing that has to happen of course is that this case,

  • which has been protecting it for decades, is coming off right before our eyes here.

  • NARRATOR: For Egyptologist Chris Naunton, it's an amazing opportunity to