字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント The way we eat has changed more in the last 50 years than in the previous 10,000. But the image that's used to sell the food, it is still the imagery of agrarian America. You go into the supermarket and you see pictures of farmers, the picket fence, the silo, the '30s farmhouse and the green grass. It's the spinning of this pastoral fantasy. The modern American supermarket has on average 47,000 products. There are no seasons in the American supermarket. Now there are tomatoes all year round, grown halfway around the world, picked when it was green, and ripened with ethylene gas. Although it looks like a tomato, it's kind of a notional tomato. I mean, it's the idea of a tomato. In the meat aisle, there are no bones anymore. There is this deliberate veil, this curtain, that's dropped between us and where our food is coming from. The industry doesn't want you to know the truth about what you're eating, because if you knew, you might not want to eat it. If you follow the food chain back from those shrink-wrapped packages of meat, you find a very different reality. The reality is a factory. It's not a farm. It's a factory. That meat is being processed by huge multinational corporations that have very little to do with ranches and farmers. Now our food is coming from enormous assembly lines where the animals and the workers are being abused. And the food has become much more dangerous in ways that are being deliberately hidden from us. You've got a small group of multinational corporations who control the entire food system. From seed to the supermarket, they're gaining control of food. This isn't just about what we're eating. This is about what we're allowed to say, what we're allowed to know. It's not just our health that's at risk. The companies don't want farmers talking. They don't want this story told. How about a nice chicken club sandwich made with fresh cooked chicken? You know, that's a nice idea, but I think what I'd really like - is a burger. - All right. My favorite meal to this day remains a hamburger and french fries. I had no idea that a handful of companies had changed what we eat and how we make our food. I've been eating this food all my life without having any idea where it comes from, any idea how powerful this industry is. And it was the idea of this world deliberately hidden from us. I think that's one of the reasons why I became an investigative reporter, was to take the veil-- lift the veil away from important subjects that are being hidden. The whole industrial food system really began with fast food. In the 1930s, a new form of restaurant arose and it was called the drive-in. The McDonald brothers had a very successful drive-in, but they decided to cut costs and simplify. So they fired all their carhops, they got rid of most of the things on the menu and they created a revolutionary idea to how to run a restaurant. They basically brought the factory system to the back of the restaurant kitchen. They trained each worker to just do one thing again and again and again. By having workers who only had to do one thing, they could pay them a low wage and it was very easy to find someone to replace them. It was inexpensive food, it tasted good and this McDonald's fast food restaurant was a huge huge success. That mentality of uniformity, conformity and cheapness applied widely and on a large scale has all kinds of unintended consequences. When McDonald's is the largest purchaser of ground beef in the United States and they want their hamburgers to taste, everywhere, exactly the same, they change how ground beef is produced. The McDonald's corporation is the largest purchaser of potatoes and one of the largest purchasers of pork, chicken, tomatoes, lettuce, even apples. These big big fast food chains want big suppliers. And now there are essentially a handful of companies controlling our food system. In the 1970s, the top five beef-packers controlled only about 25% of the market. Today, the top four control more than 80% of the market. You see the same thing happening now in pork. Even if you don't eat at a fast food restaurant, you're now eating meat that's being produced by this system. You look at the labels and you see Farmer this, Farmer that-- it's really just three or four companies that are controlling the meat. We've never had food companies this big and this powerful in our history. Tyson, for example, is the biggest meat-packing company in the history of the world. The industry changed the entire way that chicken are raised. Birds are now raised and slaughtered in half the time they were 50 years ago, but now they're twice as big. People like to eat white meat, so they redesigned the chicken to have large breasts. They not only changed the chicken, they changed the farmer. Today, chicken farmers no longer control their birds. A company like Tyson owns the birds from the day they're dropped off until the day that they're slaughtered. Let me go to the top. - This is the Chicken-- - National Chicken Council. The chicken industry has really set a model for the integration of production, processing and marketing of the products that other industries are now following because they see that we have achieved tremendous economies. In a way, we're not producing chickens; we're producing food. It's all highly mechanized. So all the birds coming off those farms have to be almost exactly the same size. What the system of intensive production accomplishes is to produce a lot of food on a small amount of land at a very affordable price. Now somebody explain to me what's wrong with that. Smells like money to me. 16 chicken houses sit here. And Chuck's son has four over the top of this hill. The chicken industry came in here and it's helped this whole community out. Here's my chicken houses here. I have about 300,000 chickens. What do you want? We have a contract with Tyson. They've been growing chickens for many many years. It's all a science. They got it figured out. If you can grow a chicken in 49 days, why would you want one you gotta grow in three months? More money in your pocket. These chickens never see sunlight. They're pretty much in the dark all the time. So you think they just want to keep us out? I don't know. If I knew, I'd tell you. It would be nice if y'all could see what we really do, but as far as y'all going in, we can't let you do that. I understand why farmers don't want to talk-- because the company can do what it wants to do as far as pay goes since they control everything. But it's just gotten to the point that it's not right what's going on and I've just made up my mind. I'm gonna say what I have to say. I understand why others don't want to do it. And I'm just to a point that it doesn't matter anymore. Something has to be said. It is nasty in here. There's dust flying everywhere. There's feces everywhere. This isn't farming. This is just mass production, like an assembly line in a factory. When they grow from a chick and in seven weeks you've got a five-and-a-half- pound chicken, their bones and their internal organs can't keep up with the rapid growth. A lot of these chickens here, they can take a few steps and then they plop down. It's because they can't keep up all the weight that they're carrying. That's normal. There's antibiotics that's put into the feed and of course that passes through the chicken. The bacteria builds up a resistance, so antibiotics aren't working anymore. I have become allergic to all antibiotics and can't take 'em. When it's dark inside the houses, the chickens lay down. It's less resistance when they're being caught. Traditionally, it's been African-American men. Now we're seeing more and more Latino catchers-- undocumented workers. From their point of view, they don't have any rights and they're just not gonna complain. The companies like these kind of workers. It doesn't matter if the chickens get sick. All of the chickens will go to the plant for processing. The companies keep the farmers under their thumb because of the debt that the farmers have. To build one poultry house is anywhere from $280,000 to $300,000 per house. And once you make your initial investment, the companies constantly come back with demands of upgrades for new equipment, and the grower has no choice. They have to do it or you're threatened with loss of a contract. This is how they keep the farmers under control. It's how they keep them spending money, going to the bank and borrowing more money. The debt just keeps building. To have no say in your business, it's degrading. It's like being a slave to the company. The idea that you would need to write a book telling people where their food came from is just a sign of how far removed we've become. It seems to me that we're entitled to know about our food-- "Who owns it? How are they making it? Can I have a look in the kitchen?" When I wanted to understand the industrial food system, what I set about doing was very simple. I wanted to trace the source of my food. When you go through the supermarket, what looks like this cornucopia of variety and choice is not. There is an illusion of diversity. There are only a few companies involved and there're only a few crops involved. What really surprised me most as I followed that food back to its source, I kept ending up in the same place, and that was a cornfield in Iowa. So much of our industrial food turns out to be clever rearrangements of corn. Corn has conquered the world in a lot of ways. It is a remarkable plant. 100 years ago, a farmer in America could grow maybe 20 bushels of corn on an acre. Today, 200 bushels is no problem. That's an astonishing achievement for which breeders deserve credit, for which fertilizer makers deserve credit, for which pesticide makers all deserve credit.