字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント 'At the dawn of the 20th century, a unique discovery was made. 'It redefined how we understand life and death in Ancient Egypt.' How wonderful to have been in that team of archaeologists who came down that day in February 1906... ..a procession of men eager to know what lay at the end of this really atmospheric series of tunnels and chambers. 'What they'd found was an intact tomb, 'undisturbed for over 3,000 years. 'And inside were not the treasures of pharaohs 'but a unique window on the world of ordinary Egyptians... '..the mummies and possessions of a working man called Kha 'and his wife Meryt. 'I'm Egyptologist Dr Joann Fletcher, 'and I'm exploring the world of Kha and Meryt... '..to find out about their lives and their deaths. 'Last time, we looked at how they lived in their tiny desert village. 'We've seen where Kha worked...' What a treat, to be able to see this kind of working surface. '..what they ate...' It's a direct link back into their world, the smell of this wonderful stuff. the way it was made. '..and how they relaxed.' And this is where the gentleman of the house would sit of an evening, drinking beer, having a chat. 'In many ways, their lives were quite similar to ours. 'But their relationship with death was completely different... '..because to Ancient Egyptians, 'life was really just a dress rehearsal 'for the perfect afterlife that they were trying to reach. 'I want to travel back into this strange and mysterious world.' This isn't a funerary building, this is a building to keep life going. 'To reach the afterlife, 'they spent fortunes on funerary equipment, buildings and rituals...' Kha's Book of the Dead would have been incredibly costly. '..and expected to face numerous trials along the way.' This is the great devourer. All evil souls, their hearts were fed to this creature, consumed, and that was it, finished for ever. 'So with Kha and Meryt as our guides, 'we'll journey back into the world of death in Ancient Egypt.' 'The Ancient Egyptians held a fundamental belief... '..your death was in many ways the most important moment in your life. 'If you'd prepared for it, you would enter the perfect afterlife... '..an idealised eternity based on life in Egypt. 'So for any Ancient Egyptian, be they farmer or pharaoh, 'the biggest investment they made was for death and the world beyond. 'And here in Ancient Thebes, death was the biggest business in town.' Now, in this part of Egypt, death was THE major employer. From the men who built these wonderful funerary temples and the rock-cut tombs to the people who embalmed the dead, who provided all the funerary equipment they would need, the little funerary figures, the artists who composed the funerary text, even the florists who put together the huge bouquets of flowers offered to the dead in their tombs, this was THE major industry. 'Our couple, Kha and Meryt, lived at the very heart of this industry, 'in the desert village now known as Deir el-Medina. 'It's close to the spectacular Valley of the Kings, 'where Kha designed and built tombs for the mighty pharaohs. 'And although he spent his working hours creating the tombs of kings, 'he spent much of his spare time preparing for his own death. 'But in order to be ready for the journey into the afterlife, 'Kha needed to plan his route carefully. 'This was where his investment started, with a guidebook. 'This scroll is known as the Book of the Dead. 'Kha's was found in his tomb, and this is a facsimile.' The Book of the Dead is a collection of funerary spells and texts and incantations, a kind of road map of the afterlife, and it was designed to allow the deceased, with the help of these spells, to navigate his or her way through into the next world. 'Its words seem mysterious and strange, 'but they had a definite purpose.' If you were going to meet some dangerous demons or monsters in the underworld, you had to have powerful spells to counteract them, to diffuse their magic and to negotiate your way past them to achieve eternity. 'Most Books of the Dead were simply off-the-shelf versions, 'mass-produced by local artists. 'But Kha's copy was specially commissioned. 'It was the deluxe version, 'featuring personal references and grandiose claims.' Words spoken by the great chief Kha: 'While plain rolls of papyrus were relatively cheap, 'at around a fifth of a worker's monthly salary, 'one inscribed with funerary texts like this 'could cost the equivalent of six months' wages at least.' So many hours of work have gone into its almost 14 metres of texts. The ink's had to be prepared, the colours ground up and mixed and then applied so carefully and with such a lot of thought. 'It's rare to find a Book of the Dead so intact. 'Yet somehow, Kha and Meryt's had remained safe 'in their undiscovered tomb for over 3,000 years. 'The only evidence that they had existed at all was this. 'I've come to see the small chapel 'that Kha built on the outskirts of their village. 'And although another major expense on Kha and Meryt's death bill, 'it was the vital link between the living and the dead.' It's like a little jewel box of colour. You come in from the glare and heat of the desert and the cliffs and you enter this little oasis of calm and quiet. 'The chapel is situated close to their house, 'because when these Ancient Egyptians died, 'they simply moved across the street. 'And as the living and the dead existed side by side, 'this was the place that families could pay their respects.' And looking around, the colours used are sumptuous. You've got the gold background, and then, as the vaulted ceiling rises up, the artist's done something very clever. They've changed the palette to these blues and greens of the Egyptian landscape. The Nile is suggested, the sky is suggested. Very cooling, refreshing and a wonderful juxtaposition of the gold, the blues and the greens. 'Blues and greens were among the most costly colours to produce, 'so Kha had clearly spared no expense. 'The walls depict all the things he and Meryt loved in life 'and hoped to enjoy in the afterlife.' It is like walking into Kha and Meryt's sitting room. They're all here. They're all around us. This isn't a funerary building, this is a building to keep life going, kind of like a giant generator with everything that life meant to Kha and Meryt encapsulated in this tiny little room. 'This chapel was the first clue 'in a trail that would ultimately lead archaeologists 'to Kha and Meryt's tomb... 'because after three millennia, the chapel was discovered 'by an Italian diplomat, Bernardino Drovetti. 'Appointed French consul to Egypt by Napoleon in 1803, 'Drovetti's main interest was amassing antiquities.' I think it's safe to say that Drovetti's methods were very, very unscrupulous. He used a range of agents to basically ransack their way through Ancient Egypt. And in doing so, he managed to acquire a stupendous series of collections of Egyptian antiquities, many of which he then sold on to sufficiently wealthy individuals. 'Drovetti sold his personal collection 'to the King of Sardinia, who put it here... 'in what is now the superb Egyptian museum in Turin. One of the most important items in this collection 'was taken from Kha and Meryt's chapel. 'This costly painted funerary stele was a kind of memorial stone 'made to ensure that their names would live on, 'and its presence in Turin 'would eventually lead to the discovery of their tomb.' It shows Kha twice, both left and right, worshipping the archetypal gods of the dead, Osiris and then the black jackal-headed god Anubis. And you can see he's praying to them for a long and successful afterlife. And then in the register below, it's kind of like a family snapshot, if you like. You have Kha and Meryt seated in front of a huge table full of food, drink, flowers. And then on the right-hand side, with the arm raised, is their eldest son, Amenopet, and he's kind of saying his prayers to his parents. So in effect, the next generation is wishing a long and happy afterlife full of good things. It's likely that this funerary stele was actually made during the lifetime of Kha. He would have almost certainly commissioned it and would have selected which deities he wanted, the kind of whole layout, the scenario, the colours. And this was a typical thing for the Ancient Egyptians to do, to commission their funerary monuments in their lifetime so they could get things just right. And then, of course, after death, the images represented would magically continue to be effective throughout eternity, so it was kind of like good insurance for what was going to happen to them in the next world. 'The elaborate Book of the Dead, their chapel and its funerary stele 'were just the beginning of Kha and Meryt's preparations 'for eternal life. 'The main investment would be their tomb. 'So I'm travelling to the Valley of the Kings, 'where Kha supervised the building of royal tombs. 'It's the best place to find out 'how he might have organised and paid for 'the construction of his own. I'm meeting geologist Steve Cross 'to see an unfinished tomb, a work in progress.' The way they cut the tombs was they started with the slot of the ceiling. And then worked outwards, right? And then excavated downwards. 'Slowly chiselling away at the bedrock, a tomb of this size 'would have taken around 40 men years to complete. 'And although a tomb like this 'was way beyond the means of most ordinary Egyptians, 'Kha had both the skills and the inspiration 'to create such a tomb for himself.' Now, this of course is a royal tomb, but in terms of Kha's own personal tomb, how on earth would he have persuaded anyone on their time off to have given him a hand excavating his tomb? Well, what they did was they all helped each other, and it was barter. "You do work in my tomb, I'll do work in your tomb." Right? So Kha, being the architect, might have designed tombs for other people in trade-off for them coming to work on his tomb. So he got the better part of the deal, really. Probably he did, yes! Don't forget, these tomb makers are THE experts. That's why the tombs in Deir el-Medina are amongst the best in the world. 'With the help of his colleagues, 'Kha clearly invested a huge amount of time, effort and resources 'into building his tomb. 'So security was critical. 'Tomb robbing had already been a big problem for 2,000 years, 'and this explains why he did something highly unusual. 'Ordinary Egyptians who could afford a tomb 'built it directly beneath their chapel complex, 'which of course made it easier to find and rob. 'But Kha had learnt from the pharaohs. 'He decided to hide his elsewhere. 'It remained secret for over 3,000 years. 'But in 1906, another Italian began explorations 'in Kha and Meryt's village. 'Egyptologist Ernesto Schiaparelli 'was director of the Egyptian museum in Turin. 'He was very familiar with the stele of Kha and Meryt 'and also knew their tomb had never been found.' He could read the hieroglyphs. He knew there was an important individual called Kha, had a wife called Meryt, and he knew they had to be buried somewhere in the vicinity where the stele was discovered. 'Schiaparelli was determined to find the tomb. 'But where to look?' Look at that instrument there. 'Eleni Vassilika, 'the present-day director of the Egyptian museum in Turin, 'has accompanied me to Egypt to follow in his footsteps.' They must have looked around and said, "The tomb is here, somewhere. "Is it that trench there or... Where can it be?" But Kha was clever, wasn't he? Kha was... He was sly! He knew what was going to go into the tomb so he wanted to hide it. I think as Schiaparelli must have stood here, scratched his head and said - knowing the stele was already in the museum, since 1824 - he must've said, "Where the hell is the tomb? "It's got to be near here,"