Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • What I'm going to do, in the spirit of collaborative creativity,

    翻訳: Hiroyuki Mori 校正: Jun Sasaki

  • is simply repeat many of the points

    これからお話しする

  • that the three people before me have already made,

    協働による創造的な発明というのは

  • but do them --

    先の3人が話したものと同じものです

  • this is called "creative collaboration;"

    でもこの意味

  • it's actually called "borrowing" --

    創造的な協働とも呼ばれる

  • but do it through a particular perspective,

    この

  • and that is to ask about the role of users and consumers

    創造的な発明の意義を

  • in this emerging world of

    違った視点 つまり

  • collaborative creativity

    ユーザーや消費者の

  • that Jimmy and others have talked about.

    役割を見直すことで

  • Let me just ask you, to start with,

    明確にしたいと思います

  • this simple question:

    簡単な質問から始めましょう

  • who invented the mountain bike?

    マウンテンバイクは

  • Because traditional economic theory would say,

    誰が発明したのでしょう?

  • well, the mountain bike was probably invented by some big bike corporation

    今までの経済理論なら

  • that had a big R&D lab

    新規の事業を始める

  • where they were thinking up new projects,

    大きな研究所を持った

  • and it came out of there. It didn't come from there.

    大企業だと考えるでしょう

  • Another answer might be, well, it came from a sort of lone genius

    でも大企業ではないのです

  • working in his garage, who,

    あるいは一人の天才が

  • working away on different kinds of bikes, comes up

    自分の車庫で

  • with a bike out of thin air.

    自転車部品を組み合わせ

  • It didn't come from there. The mountain bike

    開発したと考えるでしょう

  • came from users, came from young users,

    実際にマウンテンバイクを

  • particularly a group in Northern California,

    発明したのはカリフォルニアの若者達です

  • who were frustrated with traditional racing bikes,

    皆さんの兄さん達が

  • which were those sort of bikes that Eddy Merckx rode,

    乗っていたようなレース用の自転車には

  • or your big brother, and they're very glamorous.

    派手過ぎて興味が湧かず

  • But also frustrated with the bikes that your dad rode,

    父親が使っている

  • which sort of had big handlebars like that, and they were too heavy.

    大きなハンドルの

  • So, they got the frames from these big bikes,

    重い自転車にも満足できなかった

  • put them together with the gears from the racing bikes,

    それで 大きな自転車からフレーム

  • got the brakes from motorcycles,

    レース用自転車からは変速機

  • and sort of mixed and matched various ingredients.

    バイクからブレーキを持ってきて

  • And for the first, I don't know, three to five years of their life,

    それらを組み合わせたのです

  • mountain bikes were known as "clunkers."

    これが”クランカー”と呼ばれる

  • And they were just made in a community of bikers,

    最初のマウンテンバイクです

  • mainly in Northern California.

    カリフォルニアの自転車仲間達が

  • And then one of these companies that was importing parts

    発明した製品なのです

  • for the clunkers decided to set up in business,

    やがて 自転車部品の輸入業者が

  • start selling them to other people,

    これを商品として売り出し

  • and gradually another company emerged out of that, Marin,

    ビジネスにしようと考えた

  • and it probably was, I don't know,

    やがて他の会社も参入し

  • 10, maybe even 15, years,

    おそらく

  • before the big bike companies

    10年か15年たって

  • realized there was a market.

    自転車の大企業が

  • Thirty years later,

    目をつけた

  • mountain bike sales

    それから30年経った今では

  • and mountain bike equipment

    マウンテンバイクの売上は

  • account for 65 percent of bike sales in America.

    付属品も含めると

  • That's 58 billion dollars.

    米国自転車市場の65%

  • This is a category entirely created by consumers

    580億ドルになります

  • that would not have been created by the mainstream bike market

    マウンテンバイクは消費者が発明したわけです

  • because they couldn't see the need,

    自転車業界の主流では

  • the opportunity;

    このビジネスチャンスは見えなかったし

  • they didn't have the incentive to innovate.

    新しい製品を発明する動機も

  • The one thing I think I disagree with

    なかったからです

  • about Yochai's presentation

    ヨーカイ氏と私の考えが

  • is when he said the Internet causes

    違う点があります

  • this distributive capacity for innovation to come alive.

    彼はインターネットによって

  • It's when the Internet combines

    多くの人が協働で発明できるように

  • with these kinds of passionate pro-am consumers --

    なったと言いましたが

  • who are knowledgeable; they've got the incentive to innovate;

    情熱と知識と意欲を持つプロ級の消費者が

  • they've got the tools; they want to --

    道具を手に入れ インターネットによって

  • that you get this kind of explosion

    結びついた時に初めて

  • of creative collaboration.

    協働による発明という

  • And out of that, you get the need for the kind of things

    新しい花が開いたのです

  • that Jimmy was talking about, which is our new kinds of organization,

    ジミーの言ったある種の新しい形態の組織

  • or a better way to put it:

    あるいは組織化が

  • how do we organize ourselves without organizations?

    必要になっています

  • That's now possible; you don't need an organization to be organized,

    組織抜きで組織化できるでしょうか?

  • to achieve large and complex tasks,

    今ではソフト開発など複雑な業務を

  • like innovating new software programs.

    協働で行う場合でも

  • So this is a huge challenge

    必ずしも組織は必要ない

  • to the way we think creativity comes about.

    いかに創造性を高めるか

  • The traditional view, still enshrined

    を考える上でここが課題なのです

  • in much of the way that we think about creativity

    今までの考え方が消えたわけではなく

  • -- in organizations, in government --

    会社や政府機関でも

  • is that creativity is about special people:

    独創的な発明は

  • wear baseball caps the wrong way round,

    野球帽を逆さに被って

  • come to conferences like this, in special places,

    こうした会議に出てくるような

  • elite universities, R&D labs in the forests, water,

    ちょっと変な奴の仕事と考えている

  • maybe special rooms in companies painted funny colors,

    有名大学とか森や水辺の研究所

  • you know, bean bags, maybe the odd table-football table.

    奇抜な色の特別な部屋で

  • Special people, special places, think up special ideas,

    卓球台なんかもあるかもしれない

  • then you have a pipeline that takes the ideas

    変な人が妙な場所ですごい発明を考える

  • down to the waiting consumers, who are passive.

    発明はパイプラインで運ばれ

  • They can say "yes" or "no" to the invention.

    消費者のもとに届けられる

  • That's the idea of creativity.

    消費者の選択肢は受け取るかどうかだけ

  • What's the policy recommendation out of that

    これが世間的な理解です

  • if you're in government, or you're running a large company?

    この理解から生まれる方策は

  • More special people, more special places.

    政府も大企業も同じで

  • Build creative clusters in cities;

    特殊な人や場所を確保すること

  • create more R&D parks, so on and so forth.

    研究特区を創って

  • Expand the pipeline down to the consumers.

    独創的な人たちを集める

  • Well this view, I think, is increasingly wrong.

    消費者にはより多くの発明を届ける

  • I think it's always been wrong,

    この考えは益々間違ったものになっています

  • because I think always creativity has been highly collaborative,

    いや 最初から違っていたのです

  • and it's probably been largely interactive.

    創造的な発明は協働から生まれるのです

  • But it's increasingly wrong, and one of the reasons it's wrong

    そして対話が重要なのです

  • is that the ideas are flowing back up the pipeline.

    益々間違いになっている理由は

  • The ideas are coming back from the consumers,

    アイデアが逆向きに流れているからです

  • and they're often ahead of the producers.

    消費者が専門家以上に

  • Why is that?

    先進的なアイデアを生み出しています

  • Well, one issue

    それはなぜでしょうか?

  • is that radical innovation,

    一つには

  • when you've got ideas that

    多くの技術や人々に影響を与えるような

  • affect a large number of technologies or people,

    先鋭的な発明では

  • have a great deal of uncertainty attached to them.

    何に役立つのか分からない場合が

  • The payoffs to innovation are greatest

    少なくないからです

  • where the uncertainty is highest.

    発明による報酬が最大になるのは

  • And when you get a radical innovation,

    実は発明品の目的が見えない場合です

  • it's often very uncertain how it can be applied.

    革新的なイノベーションが生まれた時

  • The whole history of telephony

    その発明が何に利用できるかわからない

  • is a story of dealing with that uncertainty.

    電話の歴史もその一つで

  • The very first landline telephones,

    先が見えない中で進歩してきました

  • the inventors thought

    最初の有線電話は

  • that they would be used for people to listen in

    発明者には

  • to live performances

    ウエストエンドの劇場で

  • from West End theaters.

    ライブを聴くための

  • When the mobile telephone companies invented SMS,

    器具だった

  • they had no idea what it was for;

    携帯電話会社がSMSを発明した時も

  • it was only when that technology got into the hands

    何に使えるか分かってなかった

  • of teenage users

    この技術が利用者の手に渡り

  • that they invented the use.

    10代の利用者が

  • So the more radical the innovation,

    使い方を発明したのです

  • the more the uncertainty,

    発明が革新的であるほど

  • the more you need innovation in use

    確かな見通しはなく

  • to work out what a technology is for.

    使ってみなければ

  • All of our patents, our entire approach

    何の役に立つのか見えてこない

  • to patents and invention, is based on the idea

    今までの特許や発明に関わる制度は

  • that the inventor knows what the invention is for;

    発明家は自分の発明の

  • we can say what it's for.

    価値を知っている事が

  • More and more, the inventors of things

    前提でした

  • will not be able to say that in advance.

    今や発明家は発明の価値が

  • It will be worked out in use,

    前もって分からないのです

  • in collaboration with users.

    ユーザーと協働して

  • We like to think that invention is

    発明品を利用しながら次第に見えてくる

  • a sort of moment of creation:

    発明というものは

  • there is a moment of birth when someone comes up with an idea.

    誰かが瞬間に思いつくもの

  • The truth is that most creativity

    と考えがちですが

  • is cumulative and collaborative;

    実際はほとんどの発明は

  • like Wikipedia, it develops over a long period of time.

    蓄積と協働の結果です

  • The second reason why users are more and more important

    ウィキペディアも時間をかけて発展したものです

  • is that they are the source of big, disruptive innovations.

    利用者が重要であるもう一つの理由は

  • If you want to find the big new ideas,

    利用者こそがすごい発明をすることです

  • it's often difficult to find them in mainstream markets,

    新しくすごいアイデアを見つけたければ

  • in big organizations.

    業界の主流や大企業で探しても

  • And just look inside large organizations

    無駄というものです

  • and you'll see why that is so.

    大きな組織を見ると

  • So, you're in a big corporation.

    その訳が分かります

  • You're obviously keen to go up the corporate ladder.

    貴方が大企業で働いているとしましょう

  • Do you go into your board and say,

    出世の階段を上ろうとすれば

  • "Look, I've got a fantastic idea

    役員会でこんな風に

  • for an embryonic product

    話せるでしょうか?

  • in a marginal market,

    ”すごいアイデアです

  • with consumers we've never dealt with before,

    新規分野で新規顧客対象で-

  • and I'm not sure it's going to have a big payoff, but it could be really, really big in the future?"

    利益も直ぐにはでませんが-

  • No, what you do, is you go in and you say,

    将来はきっと儲かる商品になります”

  • "I've got a fantastic idea for an incremental innovation

    いや こう言うしかないのです

  • to an existing product we sell through existing channels

    ”優れた改善案です-

  • to existing users, and I can guarantee

    既存商品と既存の販売網を使った-

  • you get this much return out of it over the next three years."

    既存顧客向けのアイデアで-

  • Big corporations have an in-built tendency

    今後3年間の利益は間違いなく確保できます”

  • to reinforce past success.

    大企業ではこのように

  • They've got so much sunk in it

    過去の成功に依存します

  • that it's very difficult for them to spot

    保守性に浸かっているので

  • emerging new markets. Emerging new markets, then,

    新しい市場に飛び込めない

  • are the breeding grounds for passionate users.

    新しいマーケットは

  • Best example:

    情熱を持つユーザーが開拓するのです

  • who in the music industry,

    好例を話しましょう

  • 30 years ago, would have said,

    音楽業界の一体誰が

  • "Yes, let's invent a musical form

    30年前に思いついたでしょうか

  • which is all about dispossessed black men

    ”新しい音楽を創ろう-

  • in ghettos expressing their frustration

    抑圧された黒人がゲットーで-

  • with the world through a form of music

    世の中への不満を音楽にして-

  • that many people find initially quite difficult to listen to.

    表現するのだ-

  • That sounds like a winner; we'll go with it."

    大衆には最初は受けないかもしれないが-

  • (Laughter).

    いずれきっと売れる”

  • So what happens? Rap music is created by the users.

    (笑)

  • They do it on their own tapes, with their own recording equipment;

    どうなりました? ユーザーがラップを作りました

  • they distribute it themselves.

    自分達で歌を録音し

  • 30 years later,

    自分達で配った

  • rap music is the dominant musical form of popular culture --

    30年後

  • would never have come from the big companies.

    ラップはポピュラー音楽の主流になった

  • Had to start -- this is the third point --

    大企業からは生まれなかった

  • with these pro-ams.

    3つ目のポイントはプロ級の素人と

  • This is the phrase that I've used in

    始めることです

  • some stuff which I've done

    ロンドンの"DEMOS"という

  • with a think tank in London called Demos,

    シンクタンクで仲間との

  • where we've been looking at these people who are amateurs --

    合言葉でした

  • i.e., they do it for the love of it --

    素人ではあるけれど

  • but they want to do it to very high standards.

    それが好きな人たち

  • And across a whole range of fields --

    高い技術水準を求め

  • from software, astronomy,

    どんな分野でもよいですが

  • natural sciences,

    ソフトウェアや天文学

  • vast areas of leisure and culture

    自然科学

  • like kite-surfing, so on and so forth --

    幅広い分野の娯楽や文化

  • you find people who want to do things because they love it,

    凧サーフィンなどなど

  • but they want to do these things to very high standards.

    好きな事を好きだからやりたいという人がいます

  • They work at their leisure, if you like.

    しかも高いレベルでしようとするのです

  • They take their leisure very seriously:

    暇な時にその気になればやる

  • they acquire skills; they invest time;

    趣味だが真剣に取り組む

  • they use technology that's getting cheaper -- it's not just the Internet:

    技術を習得し時間を注ぎ込み

  • cameras, design technology,

    安く手に入る技術を利用し インターネットの他

  • leisure technology, surfboards, so on and so forth.

    カメラやデザイン技術

  • Largely through globalization,

    サーフボードなどなど

  • a lot of this equipment has got a lot cheaper.

    グローバル化によって

  • More knowledgeable consumers, more educated,

    多くの器具がすいぶん安くなった

  • more able to connect with one another,

    知識も豊かで教育のある消費者が

  • more able to do things together.

    お互いにつながり

  • Consumption, in that sense, is an expression

    一緒に活動できる

  • of their productive potential.

    消費が創造性を

  • Why, we found, people were interested in this,

    表現する手段なのです

  • is that at work they don't feel very expressed.

    こうした創造的な消費に興味を持つのは

  • They don't feel as if they're doing something that really matters to them,

    仕事では自分を表現できないからです

  • so they pick up these kinds of activities.

    意味のある仕事をしている実感がないから

  • This has huge organizational implications

    何か別の活動をやりたくなる

  • for very large areas of life.

    人の人生に大きな影響を与える

  • Take astronomy as an example,

    組織的にも大きな課題です

  • which Yochai has already mentioned.

    天文学を例に考えてみましょう

  • Twenty years ago, 30 years ago,

    ヨーカイ氏が言ったとおり

  • only big professional astronomers

    20年前か30年前には

  • with very big telescopes could see far into space.

    専門的な天文学者しか

  • And there's a big telescope in Northern England called Jodrell Bank,

    大きな望遠鏡で宇宙を見れなかった

  • and when I was a kid, it was amazing,

    英国北部のジョドレルバンク望遠鏡は

  • because the moon shots would take off, and this thing would move on rails.

    子供の時に驚いたのですが

  • Now, six

    月ロケットが発射される時に鉄道で運ぶほど

  • amateur astronomers, working with the Internet,

    とても巨大なものだった

  • with Dobsonian digital telescopes --

    今では6人の素人天文家が

  • which are pretty much open source --

    インターネットを利用して

  • with some light sensors

    ドブソニアン望遠鏡で

  • developed over the last 10 years, the Internet --

    それは無料で誰でも利用できるのですが

  • they can do what Jodrell Bank could only do 30 years ago.

    この10年で開発された

  • So here in astronomy, you have this vast explosion

    簡単なセンサーを使い

  • of new productive resources.

    30年前のジョドレルバンクと同じことができる

  • The users can be producers.

    天文学ではユーザーという創造的な担い手が

  • What does this mean, then, for our

    急速に増えています

  • organizational landscape?

    消費者が製作者にもなれるのです

  • Well, just imagine a world,

    これは組織的な視点に

  • for the moment, divided into two camps.

    どんな意味をもたらすでしょう?

  • Over here, you've got the old, traditional corporate model:

    それでは世界を2つのグループに

  • special people, special places;

    分けて考えて見ましょう

  • patent it, push it down the pipeline

    一つは古い伝統的な組織モデル

  • to largely waiting, passive consumers.

    特別な人々 特別な場所

  • Over here, let's imagine we've got

    特許をとって 受身の消費者に

  • Wikipedia, Linux, and beyond -- open source.

    商品を一方的に流す

  • This is open; this is closed.

    もう一方はウィキペディアや