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There is a psychological trait that all successful
people appear to have in common.

It's been cosigned by Bill Gates and NASA
uses it as a criteria for selecting potential

Systems Engineers.
This concept is called the growth mindset,
a term originally coined by Carol Dweck.

People with the growth mindset believe that
intelligence or skill, in any field, can be

developed through effort.
Basically, they believe that anyone can nurture
their abilities in anything.

The inverse of the growth mindset is the fixed
mindset.

People with this mindset believe that intelligence
and skill are innate: it's something that

we're born with.
We're either born gifted or not; there is
no room for change.

Basically, they believe intelligence is fixed
from birth.

In this essay, we'll explore why the growth
mindset is the better one and how we can develop

it.
So, we talked a little about what the growth
mindset is: the belief that intelligence and

skill, in any field, can be developed.
But, let's also talk about what it's not.
It's not magic.
It won't help you get everything that you
want out of life and it won't make you the

next Elon Musk or Steve Jobs.
However, it is a very powerful lens with which
to see the world and it can improve the probability

of your success.
All of us are a mixture of both the growth
and fixed mindsets.

In some areas of our lives, we operate with
the growth mindset.

In others, we operate with the fixed mindset.
Because of this, I want you to think of both
mindsets like a pair of glasses.

Some people wear the growth glasses more often
and others wear the fixed glasses more.

However, we all wear both in different situations
in our lives.

Although, we should all strive to wear the
growth ones much more than we wear the fixed

ones.
But, why?
Well, a lot of research seems to suggest that
people with the growth mindset are more successful

than people with the fixed mindset.
For example, a study found that
“Students who held a growth mindset were
three times more likely to score in the top

20% on the test, while students with a fixed
mindset were four times more likely to score

in the bottom 20%.”
Another study found that when 7th graders
participated in a growth mindset program,

they were able to avoid a drop in grades which
usually occurs in middle school.

People with the growth mindset are much more
resilient which allows them to overcome challenging

and difficult situations.
Because they prioritize learning over failure,
they are unafraid to take risks.

They prioritize growing over stagnation.
On the other hand, people with the fixed mindset
don't want to challenge themselves because

they believe talent and intelligence are fixed.
They look at failure as an assault on who
they are as a person.

To them, lack of knowledge is an indicator
of stupidity and failure once means failure

always.
A person with the growth mindset believes
that they are always in a state of flux and

transformation; so, they don't attach their
identity to their results.

Instead, they focus on the process of growing
and learning.

Few people will deny that the growth mindset
seems to map nicely onto reality.

We know that the brain can continue to learn
until the day we die, thanks to the field

of neuroscience.
It also seems quite intuitive that people
must work hard and persevere, despite obstacles,

to end up being successful.
So, the growth mindset seems to be a much
more accurate view of reality than the fixed

mindset.
People with the growth mindset are living
in greater accordance with reality than people

with the fixed mindset.
They can make truer decisions where as a person
with the fixed mindset lives in a greater

state of delusion.
What do I mean by this?
Imagine two entrepreneurs: one has the growth
mindset and one has the fixed mindset.

They are both in the early stages of their
entrepreneurial journey.

Suddenly, they both encounter a roadblock
and are forced to make a decision.

The one with the fixed mindset see's the
long and arduous journey ahead of her due

to the roadblock.
The journey is in the way of what matters
to her: the result.

She believes that entrepreneurship should
come easy to those who are destined for it.

She decides to quit.
The one with the growth mindset see's the
long and arduous journey ahead of her and

smiles.
The journey is the way for her; the journey
is what matters.

Taking the role of a student, she accepts
the long and arduous path as her teacher.

She will allow it to mold her into the person
she needs to become, to achieve the results

she desires.
She decides to persist.
When we look at both of these examples, most
of us would agree that the entrepreneur with

the growth mindset has a greater understanding
of reality.

Her decision is truer.
We know that things take time, effort, and
strategy to achieve but it's often difficult

to put that kind of thinking in to practice.
So, how can we develop the growth mindset?
The first key to developing a growth mindset
is actually very simple: understanding that

it exists and that it's possible for the
brain to change.

Neuroscience has shown that our brains are
not fixed, and, in fact, they are very malleable.

We can always grow and learn new skills.
For example, a study found that taxicab drivers
developed more grey matter in their brains

to help them navigate more effectively in
large cities.

They also found that the amount of grey matter
in their brains was correlated with the number

of years that they had been working as a taxi
driver.

This suggests that the act of driving a taxi
led to changes in their brains which allowed

them to be more effective at their job.
The second key is to focus on process over
results.

Dweck has said that we should praise others
for their efforts and their process, rather

than praising them for their results.
For example, it's better to say,
“you studied very effectively for that test
and your hard work really paid off,”

rather than,
“you're so smart, you got an A!”
In the former example, we're focusing in
on and praising the student's process which

is something that they can control.
Hopefully, they'll learn to associate themselves
and their results with the process.

However, in the latter example we praised
the student for a result which is, ultimately,

out of their control.
Unfortunately, this student will likely begin
to associate themselves with the result.

I think it's really important to emphasize
that it's not easy to pass a growth mindset

on to others.
It's not as simple as telling someone that
they're a hard-worker and that they just

need to put in the effort.
They need to internalize that they can change
their results by changing their process.

So, they need to know how to effectively create
a process, alter it, and produce results from

that process.
My solution to this is to keep a journal.
Pick an activity that you want to get really
good at.

For example, let's say that I want to get
really good at math.

In the journal, I would write down my process
for studying mathematics.

I would list out the steps and put a quantifiable
measurement to as many things as I can.

For example, my process might look like this:
* review my notes once a day,

* do 10 practice problems a day,
* read the textbook for 60 minutes a day,

* and meet with my professor for 30 minutes
a week.

So, my process has been solidified and everything
has been quantified.

Now, I need to designate a result that I'm
looking for; I need a target to aim at.

Let's say that I'm looking for a grade
of 80% or higher on my next exam.

When I get my exam mark back, I compare it
to my goal.

If it's higher, than I know my system works.
But, I can still go back and alter parts of
it to see if I can do even better.

Or, I can try and optimize it.
Maybe I can spend less time reading the textbook,
and more time doing practice problems.

If my grade comes back lower, I definitely
need to go back and refine my process.

I believe this method of keeping a journal,
creating a process, and refining it until

the desired outcome is achieved will help
promote a growth mindset.

It keeps our mind focused on a changeable
process.

The results are measured and paid attention
to only as an indicator of how well our process

works.
The process either works as intended or it
doesn't, but it says nothing of the person.

The process is always malleable.
It's not that it doesn't work, it just
doesn't work yet.

I think another good idea is to seek advice
from peers and teachers.

Look for those in the same position as you
or those who have already done what you're

trying to do.
Ask them about their process and see how your's
measures up.

You might find things that they do, or have
done, that you would like to adopt into your

process.
Read books about people you admire.
Try to find details about their process that
you can incorporate into your own.

Lastly, do challenging things.
To even have a chance of fostering the growth
mindset, you have to step outside of your

comfort zone.
People who don't leave their comfort zone
begin to believe that their success is due

to innate talent, because everything comes
so easy to them.

For example, a student who is never challenged
in school will begin to believe that they

are innately smart.
“I get A's, therefore I'm smart” they
might say.

The result comes so easy to them that they
don't even think about the process.

Unfortunately, all they see is the result
and they get attached to that.

When they, inevitably, get a bad grade they
will think that they're dumb.

They lose faith in themselves because they
didn't get the result that they're used

to receiving so easily.
On the other hand, going outside of your comfort
zone forces you to adopt the growth mindset

to avoid shattering under the weight of adversity.
You have to focus on and adjust the process,
because you can't possibly achieve the result

you desire with your current process.
By definition, that's what it means to step
out of your comfort zone.

So, now you know about the growth mindset,
why it's important, and some ideas on how

to develop it.
Keep in mind that it takes a lot of effort
to develop and that it'll always be a battle

to avoid falling into the fixed mindset.
People will say certain things, or things
will happen, that trigger a fixed mindset

in us.
It's important to notice when this is happening
and try to avoid getting fixed in place.

I'd like to close out with this quote from
Carol Dweck,

…the path to a growth mindset is a [lifelong]
journey, not

a proclamation.
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The Most Powerful Mindset for Success

156 タグ追加 保存
vivianna0725 2018 年 1 月 19 日 に公開
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