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  • When politicians talk about workers, they tend to focus on certain types of jobs.

  • Bernie stood with American workers.”

  • It’s American workers that remake this country

  • But in the US, retail workers have outnumbered manufacturing workers since 2002.

  • And food service workers aren’t far behind.

  • These jobs are in every community - theyre the base of the service economy.

  • So with the recession in the rear-view mirror, it’s worth asking: can these jobs be good jobs?

  • What do we want?

  • Contract!

  • When do we want it?

  • Now!

  • These Kroger workers are rallying outside a grocery store in West Virginia

  • because their employer wouldn’t meet their demands, stalling negotiations for a new union contract.

  • It’s not like were asking for the sun, the moon and the stars."

  • "We want a modest living wage and we want the maintenance of our medical benefits.”

  • Kroger eventually agreed to a new 3-year contract for over 4,000 workers.

  • It includes pay raises and zero cuts to their benefits.

  • By negotiating collectively, service workers can secure an hourly wage that is six dollars

  • higher on average than nonunion wages.

  • But they are a small minority.

  • Private sector union membership in the US has fallen to 6.4% of all workers.

  • It’s even lower in the retail and food service industries.

  • The decline of unions in the US was caused in part by larger trends that have shifted the types of jobs available,

  • especially for those without a college degree.

  • During the 80s, 90s and 2000s, several occupations that used to provide a stable middle-class income

  • grew more slowly than both higher-wage and lower-wage jobs.

  • That’s partly due to new technologies: robots in factories, and computer software in offices.

  • You know, “The decline in the middle has been steep.

  • A lot of that has been growth of the top, which is good.

  • People have moved out of the middle and into professional, technical and managerial jobs.

  • But, the bottom section of the labor market, which comprises maybe 17-18 percentage of jobs,

  • is about a third larger than it was in 1980.

  • And if you look just among people without a college degree it's much larger still.

  • And that's the group we should be concerned about.”

  • The great recession intensified those longer-term trends.

  • Since 2010, the economy has added millions of jobs, but not evenly.

  • The biggest area of growth was in high-skill occupations, mostly for people with 4-year college degrees.

  • Meanwhile workers with a high school diploma were pushed out of middle-skill occupations.

  • And in low-skill jobs, theyre increasingly competing with those who have some college.

  • We're adding lots of jobs.

  • The concern is that, many of the jobs that are being added are not good jobs, in terms

  • of offering a reasonable standard of living and job security.

  • And many of the good jobs that are being added are not accessible to typical workers.”

  • Thank you all for joining us today to discuss the importance of predictable schedules and

  • incomes for workers.”

  • Hello my name is Kingia Phillips.

  • I am a former worker at South Philadelphia Walmart.”

  • The juice pallets were the most hard to do.

  • And you know, when youre pregnant, youre not supposed to lift above your head, but I had to.”

  • Kingia came to DC to speak in favor of a federal bill that would regulate work schedules

  • with the aim of increasing stability in hours and income.

  • After I had the baby I asked them, 'could I have my schedule adjusted, a tiny bit?'"

  • "And they told me that we all have kids and they have a job to do, a company to run."

  • "And it turned out that they cut my schedule down to 8 hours a week.”

  • - What were you doing before that? - I was doing 32 hours.

  • Kingia got the impression that to get enough hours,

  • workers have to be available any time the store is open,

  • which is especially hard for parents, students, and people with a second job.

  • So after a month, she quit.

  • “I knew they were just going to tell me to re-open my availability, and

  • that would be the only way for me to make more money and be able to sustain myself and my child.”

  • The federal proposal faces an uphill battle in a Republican congress, but since 2014,

  • six cities and the state of Oregon have passed scheduling policies.

  • The details vary from place to place but most of them apply to fast food and retail workers,

  • they require two weeks advance notice of work schedules, with extra pay for subsequent changes

  • that are initiated by the company.

  • Most of the measures also require employers to offer hours to existing employees before

  • hiring more people.

  • So what it does is, a lot of these policies start to balance out the burden of doing business,

  • so that, you know, the people who are getting paid the lowest aren't the only ones bearing the cost.”

  • Policymakers have also moved to increase the minimum wage and require paid sick leave in

  • certain cities and states.

  • It’s a response to the fact that not only are middle-class jobs moving out of reach for non-college workers,

  • but a lot of the remaining jobs have gotten worse since the recession hit.

  • In 2005, you could walk into a JC Penney, and it was a stable workforce.

  • "People had full-time hours, and health insurance, and even commission."

  • "It was a workforce that knew each other, and felt like they could make their job better."

  • By 2008, that workforce was completely contingent.

  • People's hours were changing from one week to the next.

  • Nobody knew each other.”

  • The number of involuntary part time workers -- those are people working part time who

  • would prefer full-time work -- that jumped during the recession.

  • And the increase was greater for both the retail sector and for leisure and hospitality,

  • which includes restaurants and hotels.

  • This is part of a much broader trend.

  • A 2016 study found a significant rise inalternative work arrangementsacross the economy.

  • That includes temp workers, contract firm workers and freelancers.

  • They make sense: Salaried and full-time workers are fixed costs for employers.

  • Whether revenue is up or down, you have to pay them and fund their benefits.

  • But if you have a pool of more flexible workers whose hours you can dial up and down to match your sales,

  • you can save money, at least in the short term.

  • Those cost-cutting strategies have been enabled by new technologies.

  • Today, a lot of big employers are using workforce scheduling technologies, and so

  • it's an algorithm that's setting the schedule.

  • And when you look it, do an analysis of when the peak hours are, it's easier to slot people in for

  • four hour shifts and then rotate it out.

  • But there's very few companies (that) have systems that basically say, you know,

  • My goal is to try to give people some stability in their hours from one week to the next, and

  • I'm gonna try to match people's schedules from one week to the next.’"

  • What this has meant for some workers is schedules and paychecks that change from week to week.

  • A gallup poll of hourly workers with varying hours found that

  • one out of three said their schedules cause them financial hardship.

  • Instead of giving me two 8 hour shifts and a 4 hour shift, they would give me 5 4-hour shifts.

  • So I would have to go to school and go to work 5 times a week, instead of working 3 days a week.”

  • The amount of hours they give out is based on sales, which I believe is horrible.

  • One week I’ll have 13 hours, the next i’ll have 25, the next I’ll have 30, then back down to 15.

  • And thatthat shows on my paycheck.”

  • Target and Walmart already post schedules at least a week and a half in advance.

  • Both companies have also raised their minimum wages in recent years.

  • And several retailers have announced an end to the controversial practice of on-call scheduling.

  • On-call shifts require employees to call employers the day before or the day of a potential shift

  • to find out if theyll be needed to work.

  • If employees are not needed, they don’t get paid.”

  • But theyre a long way from a model like Costco’s

  • which guarantees a minimum amount of weekly hours for both full and part time workers.

  • The union model for including workersinput in business decisions

  • has not really moved with the economy into these low-wage service jobs.

  • And it hasn’t been replaced with something else.

  • So if workers feel like they can’t find a voice at their jobs,

  • theyll likely keep looking for one in the law.

When politicians talk about workers, they tend to focus on certain types of jobs.

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悪徳求人の台頭、解説 (The rise of bad jobs, explained)

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    kiki に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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