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動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
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I like big brains and I cannot lie, those
other guys can’t deny when a girl walks

in with a….
wait hold on, does a big brain actually mean
more intelligence? or does it just mean a

big head?
Hey guys
You know what they say, the bigger the better,
right?

So does that hold up for noggin size too?
Well in a way.
We like to think big brains mean more smarts.
Bigger is better right?
Not really.
Big brains aren’t unique to humans, whales
and elephants also have large noggins.

Compare an average blue whale brain to an
average human brain: blue whales, 15 pounds,

average human brain, 3 pounds.
But even though their brain is five times
heavier, humans come out on top.

So what’s going on?
So maybe the weight of our brain isn’t the
right way to look at it, maybe it’s a comparison

to body weight.
In that case, blue whales have a relatively
small brain; it’s only 0.007% of its body

weight.
While human brains are about 2% of body weight.
and comparing ratios.. well that still doesn’t
tell the whole story either.

Humans have a 1:40 ratio, but that’s about
the same as a mouse.

And elephants which many consider to be pretty
smart cookies have small, 1:560 brain to body

ratio.
So a really smart animal might have a large
ratio and on the other a not so bright critter

like the tree shrew has a relatively large
head compared to it’s body size, 1:10.

So not an ideal measurement either.
So researchers found a way to put humans in
their rightful place…

well, not really.
They created the "encephalization quotient”
which is similar brain to body ratio, but

it takes into account the fact that some parts
of the brain like the part that controls breathing,

is the same size across species.
So the EQ also includes a comparison of similarly
sized animals.

The formula looks like this ___
And according to this measurement, humans
dominate.

On the higher end, humans have an EQ of 7.8,
elephants- only 2.36, which is similar to

chimps, who rate at 2.5.
Which sort of seems right when it comes to
ranking intelligence.

But maybe size has less to do with intelligence
than we thought.

Some scientists say the EQ it’s not an accurate
way to judge intelligence and that other features

of the brain matter more.
Like the development of certain parts of the
brain like the cerebral cortex or the number

of folds in the brain which increase surface
area.

Maybe it’s the way the brain signals.
One study published in the journal Nature
Neuroscience found that maybe it’s not the

size, but the underlying structure and molecular
signalling at the synapses.

Synapses are those points between neurons
which exchange information.

The researchers examined molecular signaling
across various species like yeast, fruit flies,

and mice.
They found that most species have the same
proteins in the synapses.

But it’s the number interactions and gene
duplications of these proteins that begin

to show differences in intelligence.
The basic proteins found in yeast can also
be found throughout the brain in regular amounts

kind of like a foundation made out of bricks.
But the researchers say that it’s the way
these proteins interact and the number of

duplications that evolved into regions of
higher thinking.

So like bricks in a house, it’s how many
and how they’re put together that make a

strong building.
And maybe it’s the size of different regions
of the brain that matter.

Take a look at Einstein, widely considered
to be one of the smartest people to ever grace

this planet.
His brain?
Not so big.
Kind of average actually.
Though there might be some evidence that his
inferior parietal lobe was 15 percent wider

than normal, and that part of the brain has
been linked with mathematics and spatial processing.

So what’s the verdict?
Size doesn’t always matter, but maybe connections
do.

Curious about how we judge the intelligence
of other animals?

Check out this video from Trace on animal
self awareness.

コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

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Does The Size Of Your Brain Matter?

85 タグ追加 保存
chung 2017 年 11 月 13 日 に公開
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