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  • - [Instructor] Hey, this is Kim and I'm here with Leah,

  • Khan Academy's US Government and Politics Fellow.

  • Welcome Leah.

  • - [Leah] How's it going?

  • - [Kim] Alright, so we're talking about

  • the Articles of Confederation,

  • which I think many people don't realize

  • was the first constitution of the United States

  • before the one that we have now since 1789.

  • So could you take us through a little bit

  • what the Articles of Confederation were

  • and the context in which we first brought them on

  • as a governmental system?

  • - [Leah] Sure, so I think the most important thing

  • to understand about the Articles of Confederation

  • and why we would talk about this

  • is because one of the biggest debates that we have

  • in our history is about the balance of power

  • between the federal government and state governments.

  • When the Articles of Confederation were first created,

  • it was in the middle of the American Revolution.

  • They were created in 1777, and so the question becomes,

  • well, how can we run a government

  • that looks as different from monarchy as possible?

  • - [Kim] Right, so they're trying to run away from the past

  • that they're getting away from in the Revolutionary War

  • and trying to create a separate government

  • that doesn't have any of those abuses

  • that they are rebelling against.

  • - [Leah] If they're running away from a monarchy,

  • what they're running towards

  • is what we would call limited government.

  • - [Kim] OK.

  • - [Leah] So their central government,

  • which is synonymous with a federal government,

  • the central government is actually

  • really, really, really small.

  • - [Kim] OK.

  • - [Leah] They don't have an executive branch.

  • They only have Congress.

  • They don't even have a judicial branch.

  • So Congress is made up of all 13 states.

  • Every state had one representative.

  • - [Kim] OK.

  • - [Leah] In order to change the Articles of Confederation,

  • if they wanted to pass an amendment,

  • they had to get unanimous consent from all 13 states.

  • - [Kim] OK, so they're trying to make sure

  • that all of the states are represented equally,

  • but that also sounds like it would have a lot of hurdles

  • to overcome when it comes to getting consensus.

  • - [Leah] Yeah, for laws, you had to get nine

  • out of 13 states to actually pass a law.

  • So if you can imagine, if you're in a room of 13 people

  • and you all have to agree on one pizza topping

  • for the rest of your lives. (Kim laughs)

  • It would be almost impossible, right?

  • - [Kim] Wow, OK, alright, so it sounds like

  • there are some problems with the Articles of Confederation,

  • but did they do anything good for us in this early period?

  • - [Leah] Yeah, so the biggest thing

  • is that it unites all 13 colonies who are now states

  • under one government.

  • - [Kim] OK.

  • - [Leah] This government is able to pass

  • a really favorable treaty with Britain

  • and end the Revolutionary War in 1783, the Treaty of Paris.

  • - [Kim] OK, so this is kind of the government

  • that gets us through the revolutionary war

  • and is with us when we first start in the 1780s.

  • - [Leah] Yeah, and one another specific law that they pass

  • is the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  • and this Northwest Ordinance kinda tells us

  • how we are going to expand as we move west

  • and what are we going to do with that land,

  • and that's a really important idea

  • when we're moving forward with our country.

  • The only problem is with the Articles of Confederation

  • is there is a lot of things that we still have to figure out

  • as we're growing, there's a lot of growing pains.

  • - [Kim] So what led the early government

  • of the United States to realize

  • that they wanted to abandon these Articles of Confederation

  • in favor of a different constitution?

  • - [Leah] So the inciting incident is Shays' Rebellion.

  • It happens in Massachusets, and it's a group of farmers

  • led by this guy named Daniel Shays.

  • What's happening is that we had just gotten out of

  • the Revolutionary War, and a lot of of the people

  • who had fought in the Revolutionary War

  • still hadn't gotten payment for their duty.

  • They also were experiencing really high state taxes,

  • so Daniel Shays and these farmers are very upset, obviously,

  • in their wanting their money and so they started rebelling,

  • but the problem is, with the way that the central government

  • that was built, first, Congress had no ability

  • to levy or collect taxes.

  • If they couldn't collect taxes,

  • they had no ability to actually pay back their farmers.

  • Along with that, they didn't have any money

  • to create a military, so each state had their own militia,

  • but the United States as a whole as a country

  • did not have a military to suppress this rebellion.

  • So on both ends, we are in

  • a really bad situation politically.

  • - [Kim] Wow, so, there's this moment

  • where you find armed rebellion against the United States

  • for a lack of money and the US government

  • finds that it can't raise money

  • and it can't raise an army to put down this rebellion.

  • - [Leah] Exactly, and so there is this fear immediately.

  • And what we see is a lot of the founding fathers

  • that we know and really respect today like George Washington

  • and Ben Franklin and Alexander Hamilton and James Madison,

  • they get together and they say this is a problem,

  • we need to change what we have,

  • and this leads to the Constitutional Convention

  • in which we draft our second constitution.

  • - [Kim] Right, yeah, so in 1787,

  • the leaders of the United States get together and say,

  • alright, the Articles of Confederation aren't working.

  • We're gonna need a stronger central government,

  • even though we were trying to get away from the monarchy

  • and now let's think of something

  • that's going to work a little bit better for us.

- [Instructor] Hey, this is Kim and I'm here with Leah,

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B1 中級

れんぽうじょう (The Articles of Confederation)

  • 6 3
    Amy.Lin に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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