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動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
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Coral reefs are some of the most spectacular
ecosystems on the planet;
they are also some of the most vulnerable.
But, how can we protect the reefs
and the animals and plants who rely on them?
And how can we make sure our protected areas aren't hurting
the people who use the reefs to survive?
These are some of the big questions
facing marine conservation biologists today.
Let's take Fiji, for example.
Fiji is series of islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
To help balance the need for conservation and making a living,
scientists had suggested that instead of one big park,
which provides a lot of coverage for one reef system
while leaving the rest unprotected,
a better way is to create a system of protected areas
nested together like pearls on a string.
This idea is called connectivity,
and this way, scientists can protect lots of different habitats
while not excluding people from their traditional fishing grounds.
Now, the only way this string-of-pearls kind of reserve network is going to work
is if each park is connected to other parks.
There are two main benefits to this.
First of all, insurance.
If something bad happens to one park,
say an oil spill
or coral bleaching,
then because that park is part of a system,
it can be receded from other parks that escaped the event.
The second benefit is representation.
By conserving many different areas,
scientists ensure that lots of different habitats get protected.
This way, they can make sure all the different marine habitats in Fiji,
such as coral reefs,
man groves,
and seagrass beds,
are all represented.
This way we don't unduly settle any particular village
or group of people with the economic burden
of having their fishing grounds off limits.
By sharing the cost around the communities,
they can also share the benefits.
So if we agree that rather than one big park,
we should have lots of parks of different sizes
and covering different habitats,
then scientists need to make sure
that those smaller parks are connected,
because if they are not,
then they're probably not going to be self-sustaining.
But how do we know that?
That's where genetics and DNA come in.
By looking at how closely related the fish
in each one of these small reserves in Fiji are to each other,
scientists can figure out just how much migration
is going on among the reserves within the system.
Now it is important to look at a variety of different species
because there is no guarantee
that what's going on with these guys
is what's going on with these guys.
But if we look closely and at enough species,
we can see whether or not the necklace is working.
What scientists have found so far is that,
in general, there's a fair amount of connectivity
amongst the parks within Fiji.
But it's not just a big free-for-all;
rather, it seems that, for some species,
babies born in the far west are having a hard time
making it to the islands in the far east.
To help deal with that,
conservation biologists are suggesting
that there are enough parks in both the east and the west
to keep the populations healthy.
This isn't just in Fiji, either.
Lessons about reserve connectivity can help across the world
in places like Indonesia,
Papua New Guinea,
and The Bahamas.
Scientists are using a variety of tools
to help understand how individual parks
can function together
so that their sum is greater than their whole.
And this way, we can keep the beautiful necklace
that is our coral reefs intact.
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読み込み中…

【TED-Ed】Conserving our spectacular, vulnerable coral reefs - Joshua Drew

5280 タグ追加 保存
Zenn 2013 年 6 月 16 日 に公開
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