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  • I want to talk a little bit today

    翻訳: Shiho Ottomo 校正: Akiko Hicks

  • about labor and work.

    今日は「労働」 と「仕事」について少し お話しましょう

  • When we think about how people work,

    今日は「労働」 と「仕事」について少し お話しましょう

  • the naive intuition we have


  • is that people are like rats in a maze --


  • that all people care about is money,

    人はまるで迷路のネズミの様だと --

  • and the moment we give people money,


  • we can direct them to work one way,


  • we can direct them to work another way.

    人を ある方向へ また別の方向へと

  • This is why we give bonuses to bankers and pay in all kinds of ways.


  • And we really have this incredibly simplistic view

    これが 銀行家に色んな方法で ボーナスを支給する理由です

  • of why people work and what the labor market looks like.

    私達は 驚くほど単純なイメージを持ってます

  • At the same time, if you think about it,

    なぜ人が働き 労働市場がどんな仕組みか

  • there's all kinds of strange behaviors in the world around us.

    同時に よく考えてみると

  • Think about something like mountaineering and mountain climbing.

    世の中は おかしな行為で溢れてます

  • If you read books of people who climb mountains, difficult mountains,


  • do you think that those books are full of moments of joy and happiness?

    難関に挑戦する 登山家の本を読んで

  • No, they are full of misery.

    その本は 幸せと喜びの瞬間だらけだと思いますか?

  • In fact, it's all about frostbite and difficulty to walk

    いえ 苦難ばかりです

  • and difficulty of breathing --

    事実 すべて凍傷と歩行困難 呼吸困難

  • cold, challenging circumstances.

    事実 すべて凍傷と歩行困難 呼吸困難

  • And if people were just trying to be happy,

    寒さに 厳しい状況ばかり

  • the moment they would get to the top,

    人が幸せになる事だけを考えるなら 登頂した瞬間に言うでしょう

  • they would say, "This was a terrible mistake.

    人が幸せになる事だけを考えるなら 登頂した瞬間に言うでしょう

  • I'll never do it again."

    「これは大きな間違いだった 二度とやるまい」

  • (Laughter)

    「これは大きな間違いだった 二度とやるまい」

  • "Instead, let me sit on a beach somewhere drinking mojitos."


  • But instead, people go down,

    「代わりに どこかの海辺で モヒートでも飲んでいれば良かった」

  • and after they recover, they go up again.

    しかし人は 下山して回復すると また登山するんです

  • And if you think about mountain climbing as an example,

    しかし人は 下山して回復すると また登山するんです

  • it suggests all kinds of things.


  • It suggests that we care about reaching the end, a peak.


  • It suggests that we care about the fight, about the challenge.

    私たちにとって 最終地点 つまり頂上へ 行き着くことが大切だろうとか

  • It suggests that there's all kinds of other things

    戦い 挑戦も大切だろうとわかります

  • that motivate us to work or behave in all kinds of ways.

    他にも仕事や あらゆる事をする上で

  • And for me personally, I started thinking about this

    意欲の元となる物は 沢山あるようです

  • after a student came to visit me.

    私が個人的に この事を考え始めたのは

  • This was a student that was one of my students a few years earlier.


  • And he came one day back to campus.

    彼は 数年前の教え子で

  • And he told me the following story:


  • He said that for more than two weeks, he was working on a PowerPoint presentation.


  • He was working in a big bank.

    彼は 2週間以上にわたって パワーポイントのプレゼン資料を作っていた と

  • This was in preparation for a merger and acquisition.


  • And he was working very hard on this presentation --

    これは 銀行の合併に関わる準備でした

  • graphs, tables, information.

    なので このプレゼンに全力を尽くしていた―

  • He stayed late at night every day.

    グラフ 表 情報

  • And the day before it was due,

    毎晩 遅くまで居残り

  • he sent his PowerPoint presentation to his boss,

    締め切りの前日に このプレゼン資料を上司に送った と

  • and his boss wrote him back and said,

    締め切りの前日に このプレゼン資料を上司に送った と

  • "Nice presentation, but the merger is canceled."


  • And the guy was deeply depressed.

    「良いプレゼン資料だけど 合併はキャンセルになったから」

  • Now at the moment when he was working,


  • he was actually quite happy.

    実は 作業に熱中していた頃は

  • Every night he was enjoying his work,

    結構 幸せだったのです

  • he was staying late, he was perfecting this PowerPoint presentation.

    毎晩 彼は仕事を楽しんでいた

  • But knowing that nobody would ever watch that made him quite depressed.

    夜遅くまで居残って このプレゼン資料を仕上げる事も

  • So I started thinking about how do we experiment

    しかし この資料は誰の目にも触れない その事が 彼を酷く落ち込ませました

  • with this idea of the fruits of our labor.

    ここで私は考えました どう研究するか―

  • And to start with, we created a little experiment


  • in which we gave people Legos, and we asked them to build with Legos.

    まず始めに ある実験をしました

  • And for some people, we gave them Legos and we said,

    被験者に レゴを渡して それを組み立てて貰うんです

  • "Hey, would you like to build this Bionicle for three dollars?

    その中の何人かには こう言います

  • We'll pay you three dollars for it."

    「このロボット型レゴを $3.00で作って貰えませんか? お支払いします」 と

  • And people said yes, and they built with these Legos.

    「このロボット型レゴを $3.00で作って貰えませんか? お支払いします」 と

  • And when they finished, we took it, we put it under the table,

    そして皆 はい と答え レゴを作り始めました

  • and we said, "Would you like to build another one, this time for $2.70?"

    終わったら受け取って 下に置いてから

  • If they said yes, we gave them another one.

    「じゃあ今度は $2.70でもう1つ作って貰える?」

  • And when they finished, we asked them,

    はい と答えれば もう1つ渡し―

  • "Do you want to build another one?" for $2.40, $2.10, and so on,

    終わったら また「もう1ついいかな?」

  • until at some point people said, "No more. It's not worth it for me."


  • This was what we called the meaningful condition.


  • People built one Bionicle after another.


  • After they finished every one of them, we put them under the table.

    皆 レゴを次々に作っ て

  • And we told them that at the end of the experiment,

    終わるごとに 全てテーブルの下に置いていますが

  • we will take all these Bionicles, we will disassemble them,


  • we will put them back in the boxes, and we will use it for the next participant.

    受け取った これらのレゴをバラして

  • There was another condition.


  • This other condition was inspired by David, my student.


  • And this other condition we called the Sisyphic condition.


  • And if you remember the story about Sisyphus,


  • Sisyphus was punished by the gods to push the same rock up a hill,


  • and when he almost got to the end,

    シジフォスは 神々から罰を受け 1つの岩を山頂まで転がすことを命ぜられました

  • the rock would roll over, and he would have to start again.

    しかし間もなく頂上という所で 岩は転げ落ち

  • And you can think about this as the essence of doing futile work.


  • You can imagine that if he pushed the rock on different hills,

    この話の神髄は 無駄骨を折るという事です

  • at least he would have some sense of progress.

    いろいろな山々に行って 岩を転がすのなら

  • Also, if you look at prison movies,


  • sometimes the way that the guards torture the prisoners

    また 監獄モノの映画で―

  • is to get them to dig a hole


  • and when the prisoner is finished, they ask him to fill the hole back up and then dig again.


  • There's something about this cyclical version

    それが終わると その穴を埋めさせ また掘らせるというのがあります

  • of doing something over and over and over

    この 同じ作業を何度も何度も 繰り返すという行為は

  • that seems to be particularly demotivating.

    この 同じ作業を何度も何度も 繰り返すという行為は

  • So in the second condition of this experiment, that's exactly what we did.

    モチベーションを低下させる事と 特に関係があるようです

  • We asked people, "Would you like to build one Bionicle for three dollars?"

    そこで これを2つ目の 実験条件として使いました

  • And if they said yes, they built it.

    被験者にこう言います 「$3.00でロボット型レゴ作って貰えますか?」

  • Then we asked them, "Do you want to build another one for $2.70?"

    はい と答えたら作って貰い

  • And if they said yes, we gave them a new one,

    「じゃあ次は $2.70でもう1つ作って貰える?」 と聞きます

  • and as they were building it,

    はい と答えたらもう1つ渡し 新しいのに取り掛かっている間に

  • we took apart the one that they just finished.

    はい と答えたらもう1つ渡し 新しいのに取り掛かっている間に

  • And when they finished that,


  • we said, "Would you like to build another one, this time for 30 cents less?"


  • And if they said yes, we gave them the one that they built and we broke.

    「もう1つお願いできないかな 今度は30セント安くで」

  • So this was an endless cycle

    はい と答えたらバラしたレゴを渡すんです

  • of them building and us destroying in front of their eyes.


  • Now what happens when you compare these two conditions?

    彼らが作り その目の前で僕らがバラす

  • The first thing that happened

    この2つの条件を比べると  何がわかるでしょう?

  • was that people built many more Bionicles -- they built 11 versus seven --


  • in the meaningful condition versus the Sisyphus condition.

    作ったレゴの数です 11対7で 「意義のある状況」の人の方が

  • And by the way, we should point out that this was not a big meaning.

    「徒労の状況」の人より 多くレゴを作りました

  • People were not curing cancer or building bridges.

    これは 別に大して意義のある作業ではありません

  • People were building Bionicles for a few cents.

    これはガンの治療とも 橋の建設とも違います

  • And not only that, everybody knew that the Bionicles would be destroyed quite soon.

    小銭程度の報酬で レゴを作る作業です

  • So there was not a real opportunity for big meaning.

    それだけでなく 皆すぐにレゴが壊される事を 知っていました

  • But even the small meaning made a difference.


  • Now we had another version of this experiment.

    でも こんな小さな事でも差が出たんです

  • In this other version of the experiment,

    さて この実験の別バージョンも行いました

  • we didn't put people in this situation,


  • we just described to them the situation, much as I am describing to you now,


  • and we asked them to predict what the result would be.

    今私がやっている様に状況を説明して 結果を予想してもらったのです

  • What happened?

    今私がやっている様に状況を説明して 結果を予想してもらったのです

  • People predicted the right direction but not the right magnitude.


  • People who were just given the description of the experiment

    方向性は正しく予測されましたが 規模が違いました

  • said that in the meaningful condition people would probably build one more Bionicle.


  • So people understand that meaning is important,

    「意義のある状況」に置かれた人の方が 1つ多くレゴを作っただろうと答えました

  • they just don't understand the magnitude of the importance,

    つまり 人々は「意義」が重要なのだと 理解していますが

  • the extent to which it's important.


  • There was one other piece of data we looked at.


  • If you think about it, there are some people who love Legos and some people who don't.

    この時 着目したデータがもう1つあります

  • And you would speculate that the people who love Legos

    よく考えてみると レゴが大好きな人と そうでない人がいます

  • will build more Legos, even for less money,

    皆さん レゴ好きの人は―

  • because after all, they get more internal joy from it.

    より少ないお金でも 多くのレゴを作ると推測するでしょう

  • And the people who love Legos less will build less Legos

    なぜなら 元来この作業を心から楽しめるから

  • because the enjoyment that they derive from it is lower.

    また レゴがそこまで好きじゃない人は あまり作らない

  • And that's actually what we found in the meaningful condition.

    得られる楽しみが そもそも少ないからです

  • There was a very nice correlation between love of Lego

    「意義のある状況」では予想通りの結果が 得られました

  • and the amount of Legos people built.

    レゴに対する愛と 作ったレゴの数との間に とても良い相互関係がありました

  • What happened in the Sisyphic condition?

    レゴに対する愛と 作ったレゴの数との間に とても良い相互関係がありました

  • In that condition the correlation was zero.


  • There was no relationship between the love of Lego and how much people built,

    この場合 相互関係はゼロでした

  • which suggests to me that with this manipulation

    レゴに対する愛と 作ったレゴの数との間に関連性がなく

  • of breaking things in front of people's eyes,

    目の前で作ったものを壊すと言うこの 心理的操作によって

  • we basically crushed any joy that they could get out of this activity.

    目の前で作ったものを壊すと言うこの 心理的操作によって

  • We basically eliminated it.

    我々はこれにより この行動で得られる 小さな喜びを潰し―

  • Soon after I finished running this experiment,


  • I went to talk to a big software company in Seattle.

    この実験の後 少しして

  • I can't tell you who they were, but they were a big company in Seattle.

    シアトルの ある大きなソフトウェア会社に 話をしに行きました

  • And this was a group within this software company that was put in a different building.

    どことは言えませんが とにかくシアトルの大企業です

  • And they asked them to innovate and create the next big product for this company.

    別のビルに配置された社内の あるグループに話しをしました

  • And the week before I showed up,

    彼らはこの会社の為に 次の大きな製品を作るように言われていました

  • the CEO of this big software company went to that group, 200 engineers,


  • and canceled the project.

    このソフトウェア会社の社長が 200名のエンジニアからなる このグループに

  • And I stood there in front of 200 of the most depressed people I've ever talked to.


  • And I described to them some of these Lego experiments,

    そこで 今までになく酷く落ち込んだ 200名もの人達の前で 話をすることになりました

  • and they said they felt like they had just been through that experiment.


  • And I asked them, I said,

    彼らは その実験と同じ経験をしたような気分だ と言いました

  • "How many of you now show up to work later than you used to?"


  • And everybody raised their hand.

    「この中で 以前より遅い時刻に出社している人は?」

  • I said, "How many of you now go home earlier than you used to?"


  • And everybody raised their hand.

    「この中で 以前より早い時刻に帰宅している人は?」

  • I asked them, "How many of you now add not-so-kosher things to your expense reports?"


  • And they didn't really raise their hands,

    「疑わしいものを 経費として報告している人は?」

  • but they took me out to dinner and showed me what they could do with expense reports.


  • And then I asked them, I said,

    私を夕食に誘い どこまで経費で落とせるか見せてくれました

  • "What could the CEO have done to make you not as depressed?"


  • And they came up with all kinds of ideas.

    「君達が こんなに落ち込まずに済むように 社長が出来た事って何だと思う?」

  • They said the CEO could have asked them to present to the whole company


  • about their journey over the last two years and what they decided to do.

    彼らが 過去2年かけた努力の過程を―

  • He could have asked them to think about which aspect of their technology


  • could fit with other parts of the organization.

    彼らの技術の どの部分が他部署でも使えるか

  • He could have asked them to build some prototypes, some next-generation prototypes,


  • and seen how they would work.

    次世代の試作品を作って どう動くか見てもらえれば良かった

  • But the thing is that any one of those

    次世代の試作品を作って どう動くか見させてくれれば 良かった

  • would require some effort and motivation.


  • And I think the CEO basically did not understand the importance of meaning.


  • If the CEO, just like our participants,

    社長は「意義」の重要性を 理解していなかったのでしょう

  • thought the essence of meaning is unimportant,


  • then he [wouldn't] care.


  • And he would tell them, "At the moment I directed you in this way,


  • and now that I am directing you in this way,

    そしてこう言うでしょう― 「あの時はそのように指示を出したけれど

  • everything will be okay."

    今はこう言った指示を出します 全部上手くいきます」

  • But if you understood how important meaning is,

    今はこう言った指示を出します 全部上手くいきます」

  • then you would figure out that it's actually important

    しかし もし「意義」の大事さを理解していたのなら

  • to spend some time, energy and effort

    本当に重要な事が何か 気付くでしょう

  • in getting people to care more about what they're doing.

    人に何かを一生懸命させるには 時間と エネルギーと 努力を費やす事だと

  • The next experiment was slightly different.

    人に何かを一生懸命させるには 時間と エネルギーと 努力を費やす事だと

  • We took a sheet of paper with random letters,


  • and we asked people to find pairs of letters that were identical next to each other.


  • That was the task.

    同じ文字が並んでいるものを 探してもらう

  • And people did the first sheet.


  • And then we asked them if they wanted to do the next sheet for a little bit less money


  • and the next sheet for a little bit less money, and so on and so forth.

    2枚目を もう少し少ない金額で出来ないか―

  • And we had three conditions.


  • In the first condition, people wrote their name on the sheet,


  • found all the pairs of letters, gave it to the experimenter.

    1つめは 自分の名前を紙に書いて貰い―

  • The experimenter would look at it, scan it from top to bottom,

    同じ文字が並んだペアを全て見つけたら 実験者に紙を提出してもらいます

  • say "uh huh" and put it on the pile next to them.

    実験者はそれを上から下まで さっと確認し

  • In the second condition, people did not write their name on it.

    「はいどうも」と言って 彼らの横にある紙束の上に載せる

  • The experimenter looked at it,

    2つめは 名前を紙に書いて貰わずに―

  • took the sheet of paper, did not look at it, did not scan it,


  • and simply put it on the pile of pages.

    紙を受け取って 見もせず 確認もせず

  • So you take a piece, you just put it on the side.


  • And in the third condition,


  • the experimenter got the sheet of paper and directly put it into a shredder.


  • What happened in those three conditions?

    実験者は紙を受け取り それをすぐさまシュレッダーにかける

  • In this plot I'm showing you at what pay rate people stopped.


  • So low numbers mean that people worked harder. They worked for much longer.

    このグラフは 人々が作業をやめた 支払額を示しています

  • In the acknowledged condition, people worked all the way down to 15 cents.

    つまり低い数字は 一生懸命働いた人です 彼らは より長く働いた

  • At 15 cents per page, they basically stopped these efforts.

    仕事をきちんと「認識される状況」下では 一番最低は15セントで働きました

  • In the shredder condition, it was twice as much -- 30 cents per sheet.


  • And this is basically the result we had before.

    「シュレッダーの状況」下では 倍の30セントです

  • You shred people's efforts, output,


  • you get them not to be as happy with what they're doing.

    人の 努力や成果を 切り刻んでしまうと

  • But I should point out, by the way,

    自分のしている事に対し あまり嬉しくない状況になってしまいます

  • that in the shredder condition, people could have cheated.

    ここで 1つだけ指摘しておきたいのは

  • They could have done not so good work,

    「シュレッダーの状況」下では ズルが出来たはずだと言う事です

  • because they realized that people were just shredding it.


  • So maybe the first sheet you would do good work,

    シュレッダーにかけられることが 分かっていたからです

  • but then you see nobody is really testing it,

    つまり 1枚目はいい仕事をしても

  • so you would do more and more and more.


  • So in fact, in the shredder condition,


  • people could have submitted more work and gotten more money


  • and put less effort into it.

    皆 もっと提出して もっと稼げたはず

  • But what about the ignored condition?

    あまり努力もせずに です

  • Would the ignored condition be more like the acknowledged or more like the shredder,


  • or somewhere in the middle?

    「認識」と「シュレッダー」の どちらかに近いか

  • It turns out it was almost like the shredder.

    それとも 真ん中らへんでしょうか?

  • Now there's good news and bad news here.


  • The bad news is that ignoring the performance of people

    ここで 良いニュースと 悪いニュースです

  • is almost as bad as shredding their effort in front of their eyes.

    悪いニュース 人の成果を無視する行為は

  • Ignoring gets you a whole way out there.

    人の努力を 目の前で切り刻むのと 同等に酷い事なのです

  • The good news is that by simply looking at something that somebody has done,

    無視することは 人を崖っぷちに追いやります

  • scanning it and saying "uh huh,"

    良いニュースは 誰かがやった何かを

  • that seems to be quite sufficient

    ただ さーっと見て 「はい どうも」と言うだけで

  • to dramatically improve people's motivations.

    人のモチベーションを劇的に高めるのに 十分 事足りると言う事です

  • So the good news is that adding motivation doesn't seem