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  • The following are my opinions,


  • and do not reflect the opinions or policies of any particular prosecutor's office.


  • (Laughter)


  • I am a prosecutor.


  • I believe in law and order.


  • I am the adopted son of a police officer, a Marine and a hairdresser.

    海兵隊所属の警察官と美容師の 養父母に育てられました

  • I believe in accountability and that we should all be safe in our communities.

    人は自らの行動に責任を持つものであり誰もが社会の中で安全に暮らせるべきだと 私は信じています

  • I love my job and the people that do it.


  • I just think that it's our responsibility to do it better.

    職務を改善していくことが 我々の責任だと考えています

  • By a show of hands,

    さて 手を上げて答えてください

  • how many of you, by the age of 25,

    ここにいる皆さんの中で 25歳になるまでに

  • had either acted up in school,


  • went somewhere you were specifically told to stay out of,


  • or drank alcohol before your legal age?

    飲酒できる年齢より前に お酒を飲んだりした人はいますか?

  • (Laughter)


  • All right.

    はい いいでしょう

  • How many of you shoplifted,


  • tried an illegal drug


  • or got into a physical fight – yes, even with a sibling?


  • Now, how many of you ever spent one day in jail for any of those decisions?


  • How many of you sitting here today think that you're a danger to society

    それでは そういった行動をとった結果 1日でも収監されたことがある人は?

  • or should be defined by those actions of youthful indiscretion?


  • (Laughter)


  • Point taken.

    自分を社会に対し危険な存在と思う または思われて当然と思う方は?

  • When we talk about criminal justice reform,


  • we often focus on a few things,


  • and that's what I want to talk to you about today.

    刑事司法制度の改革について 話すとき

  • But first I'm going tosince you shared with me,

    我々が目を向ける事柄は 限られています

  • I'm going to give you a confession on my part.

    今日はそのことについて お話ししたいと思います

  • I went to law school to make money.

    しかしまず— 皆さんも正直に答えてくれたので

  • I had no interest in being a public servant.


  • I had no interest in criminal law.


  • And I definitely didn't think that I would ever be a prosecutor.


  • Near the end of my first year of law school, I got an internship in the Roxbury Division of Boston Municipal Court.

    公務員になるつもりは さらさらなく

  • I knew of Roxbury as an impoverished neighborhood in Boston, plagued by gun violence and drug crime.

    刑事法にも まったく興味なし

  • My life and my legal career changed the first day of that internship.

    検察官になるだなんて これっぽっちも思っていませんでした

  • I walked into a courtroom, and I saw an auditorium of people who, one by one, would approach the front of that courtroom to say two words and two words only:

    1年生の終わりに インターンとして

  • "Not guilty."

    ボストン地裁のロクスベリー支部で 働きました

  • They were predominately black and brown.

    ロクスべリーが ボストンでも貧しい地区であり

  • And then a judge, a defense attorney and a prosecutor would make life-altering decisions about that person without their input.

    銃による暴力や薬物犯罪が 蔓延していることは知っていました

  • They were predominately white.

    私のリーガルキャリアと人生が変わったのは このインターン初日のことです

  • As each person, one by one, approached the front of that courtroom, I couldn't stop but think:

    法廷に入った私が見たのは 座席を埋め尽くす人々

  • How did they get here?

    一人一人 前に出てきて

  • I wanted to know their stories.


  • And as the prosecutor read the facts of each case, I was thinking to myself, we could have predicted that.


  • That seems so preventable, not because I was an expert in criminal law, but because it was common sense.

    圧倒的に 黒人と褐色人種ばかりです

  • Over the course of the internship,

    それに対し 裁判官、弁護士や検察が

  • I began to recognize people in the auditorium,

    本人の言い分を聞かずに 人生にかかわる決定を下します

  • not because they were criminal masterminds


  • but because they were coming to us for help

    法廷で一人一人が 前に出るのを見ながら

  • and we were sending them out without any.


  • My second year of law school I worked as a paralegal for a defense attorney,


  • and in that experience I met many young men accused of murder.

    どんな物語を経て ここに来たのだろうか」

  • Even in our "worst," I saw human stories.

    検察が各人の容疑事実を 一件一件読み上げる中

  • And they all contained childhood trauma, victimization, poverty, loss, disengagement from school,


  • early interaction with the police and the criminal justice system, all leading to a seat in a courtroom.


  • Those convicted of murder were condemned to die in prison,


  • and it was during those meetings with those men that I couldn't fathom why we would spend so much money to keep this one person in jail for the next 80 years,


  • when we could have reinvested it up front, and perhaps prevented the whole thing from happening in the first place.

    でも 常識じゃないですか

  • (Applause)


  • My third year of law school,

    出廷者たちの顔を 自然に憶えていきました

  • I defended people accused of small street crimes,


  • mostly mentally ill,

    助けを求めて 来ている人たちなのに

  • mostly homeless,

    手を差し伸べることなく 帰してしまっていたからです

  • mostly drug-addicted,

    2年生になって 被告人弁護士の パラリーガルになりました

  • all in need of help.

    殺人容疑がかかった若者にも 沢山出会いました

  • They would come to us,

    しかし「最悪」の事件においても 人間らしさが見られました

  • and we would send them away without that help.


  • They were in need of our assistance.

    何らかの被害者であり 貧困や死別を経験し

  • But we weren't giving them any.


  • Prosecuted, adjudged and defended

    若年での警察や司法制度との 関わりなどを経験しており

  • by people who knew nothing about them.


  • The staggering inefficiency is what drove me to criminal justice work.

    殺人で有罪になった者たちは 終身刑を宣告されていました

  • The unfairness of it all made me want to be a defender.

    そういった人たちとの面談中 どうしても 解せないことがありました

  • The power dynamic that I came to understand

    なぜ こんなにも金をかけて—

  • made me become a prosecutor.

    目の前のこの人をこれから80年も 刑務所に入れておくのか

  • I don't want to spend a lot of time talking about the problem.

    その金を前もって 違うことに遣えば

  • We know the criminal justice system needs reform,

    そもそもの犯罪の芽を摘むことが できるのではないか

  • we know there are 2.3 million people in American jails and prisons,


  • making us the most incarcerated nation on the planet.


  • We know there's another seven million people on probation or parole,

    軽犯罪容疑の人々の 弁護をしました

  • we know that the criminal justice system


  • disproportionately affects people of color,


  • particularly poor people of color.


  • And we know there are system failures happening everywhere


  • that bring people to our courtrooms.

    しかし 我々は

  • But what we do not discuss

    彼らが求める助けを与えずに 送り返していました

  • is how ill-equipped our prosecutors are to receive them.

    我々の助けを 切実に必要としている人たちでした

  • When we talk about criminal justice reform,

    しかし何の手も 差し伸べられていなかったのです

  • we, as a society, focus on three things.


  • We complain, we tweet, we protest


  • about the police, about sentencing laws

    恐ろしく非効率なやり方を見て 刑事司法の職に就こうと思いました

  • and about prison.

    あまりの不公平さを見て 弁護人になりたいと思いました

  • We rarely, if ever, talk about the prosecutor.


  • In the fall of 2009,


  • a young man was arrested by the Boston Police Department.


  • He was 18 years old, he was African American

    刑事司法制度に改革が必要なことは 皆わかっています

  • and he was a senior at a local public school.


  • He had his sights set on college

    アメリカが世界中で最も 投獄者の多い国になっていることも—

  • but his part-time, minimum-wage job wasn't providing the financial opportunity

    これに加え700万人が執行猶予か 仮釈放の身であることも—

  • he needed to enroll in school.


  • In a series of bad decisions,

    有色人種ばかりで 中でも特に

  • he stole 30 laptops from a store and sold them on the Internet.


  • This led to his arrest


  • and a criminal complaint of 30 felony charges.


  • The potential jail time he faced is what stressed Christopher out the most.

    しかし 誰も話題にしないのが

  • But what he had little understanding of


  • was the impact a criminal record would have on his future.


  • I was standing in arraignments that day

    社会として 我々は3つのことに 集中します

  • when Christopher's case came across my desk.


  • And at the risk of sounding dramatic, in that moment,

    そうして話題にするのは 警察、判決法や

  • I had Christopher's life in my hands.


  • I was 29 years old, a brand-new prosecutor,

    検察が話題に上がることは 全くと言っていいほどありません

  • and I had little appreciation for how the decisions I would make


  • would impact Christopher's life.

    若い男がボストン警察に 逮捕されました

  • Christopher's case was a serious one


  • and it needed to be dealt with as such,


  • but I didn't think branding him a felon for the rest of his life


  • was the right answer.

    最低賃金のアルバイトでは 進学費用を貯めることなど

  • For the most part, prosecutors step onto the job


  • with little appreciation of the impact of our decisions,


  • regardless of our intent.

    彼はラップトップ30台を店から盗んで ネット上で売りました

  • Despite our broad discretion,


  • we learn to avoid risk at all cost,

    30種類の重罪容疑で 刑事告訴されていました

  • rendering our discretion

    少年は刑務所送りになる可能性を 最も恐れていましたが

  • basically useless.


  • History has conditioned us to believe that somehow,

    犯罪歴が自分自身の将来につける 傷のことです

  • the criminal justice system brings about accountability

    ある日 罪状認否手続の最中

  • and improves public safety,


  • despite evidence to the contrary.

    仰々しく聞こえるかもしれませんが まさにその瞬間

  • We're judged internally and externally by our convictions and our trial wins,

    その少年 クリストファーの人生は 私の手の中にあったのです

  • so prosecutors aren't really incentivized to be creative

    私は29歳 検察官になったばかりで

  • at our case dispositions,

    自分が下す決断が 彼の人生に及ぼす影響を

  • or to take risks on people we might not otherwise.


  • We stick to an outdated method,

    深刻な事件だったため それなりの扱いを要していましたが

  • counterproductive to achieving the very goal that we all want,

    ただ 彼をその後の人生ずっと 重罪犯人扱いすることが

  • and that's safer communities.


  • Yet most prosecutors standing in my space would have arraigned Christopher.

    ほとんどの人は 検察官になるとき

  • They have little appreciation for what we can do.

    自分の決断が 意図に関係なく持つ影響力を

  • Arraigning Christopher would give him a criminal record,


  • making it harder for him to get a job,


  • setting in motion a cycle

    我々検察官は ひたすらリスク回避することを学び

  • that defines the failing criminal justice system today.

    自分の裁量が根本的に 無用の長物と化してしまうのです

  • With a criminal record and without a job,

    過去からの積み重ねの結果 我々は

  • Christopher would be unable to find employment, education or stable housing.

    刑事司法制度により 行動に責任が伴うようになり

  • Without those protective factors in his life,


  • Christopher would be more likely to commit further, more serious crime.


  • The more contact Christopher had with the criminal justice system,

    対内・対外的にも 有罪判決や勝訴の数で値踏みされるため

  • the more likely it would be that he would return again

    自由に考えて仕事をする動機が ほとんどありません

  • and again and again --


  • all at tremendous social cost to his children, to his family

    被告に対するリスクを負うかを 決める立場にあるのに です

  • and to his peers.


  • And, ladies and gentlemen,


  • it is a terrible public safety outcome for the rest of us.

    安全な社会の実現が 妨げられています

  • When I came out of law school,

    この件に当たったのが他の検察官なら クリストファーを起訴したでしょう

  • I did the same thing as everybody else.

    我々検察にできることの可能性を ほとんど認識していませんからね

  • I came out as a prosecutor expected to do justice,

    もし起訴すれば クリストファーには前科がつき

  • but I never learned what justice was in my classes --


  • none of us do.


  • None of us do.

    今日 機能していない 刑事司法制度の一環なのです

  • And yet, prosecutors are the most powerful actors


  • in the criminal justice system.

    就職先も、進路も、安定した住まいも 見つけられなくなります

  • Our power is virtually boundless.


  • In most cases, not the judge,

    もっと深刻な さらなる犯罪に 手を染める可能性が高まります

  • not the police, not the legislature,

    司法刑事制度との関わりが 増えれば増えるほど

  • not the mayor, not the governor, not the President

    再犯率は高まり 彼はまた何度も—

  • can tell us how to prosecute our cases.


  • The decision to arraign Christopher and give him a criminal record

    自分の子供 家族 同世代の人々に対する 非常に大きな社会負担です

  • was exclusively mine.


  • I would choose whether to prosecute him for 30 felonies, for one felony,

    これは社会全体の安全に 結果として大きな脅威をもたらします

  • for a misdemeanor,


  • or at all.


  • I would choose whether to leverage Christopher into a plea deal


  • or take the case to trial, and ultimately,

    正義が何かなんて 授業では習いませんでした

  • I would be in a position to ask for Christopher to go to jail.


  • These are decisions that prosecutors make every day unfettered,


  • and we are unaware and untrained

    それでいて検察という立場は 刑事司法制度内で

  • of the grave consequences of those decisions.


  • One night this past summer,


  • I was at a small gathering of professional men of color

    ほとんどの場合 裁判官も

  • from around the city.


  • As I stood there stuffing free finger sandwiches into my mouth,


  • as you do as public servant


  • (Laughter)

    クリストファーを起訴し 前科をつけるか否かの判断は

  • I noticed across the room,


  • a young man waving and smiling at me and approaching me.

    30種類の重罪も選べるし 1つの重罪も

  • And I recognized him, but I couldn't place from where,


  • and before I knew it, this young man was hugging me.


  • And thanking me.


  • "You cared about me, and you changed my life."

    事件を裁判に持ち込むかどうかも 私の自由で

  • It was Christopher.

    究極的には彼を牢屋送りに できる立場にいました

  • See, I never arraigned Christopher.

    検察官は 毎日誰の干渉も受けずに こうした判断を下しており

  • He never faced a judge or a jail,


  • he never had a criminal record.

    無知であり かつ教育されてもいないのです

  • Instead, I worked with Christopher;


  • first on being accountable for his actions,

    私は有色人種の社会人男性を対象とする 町の小さな集会に

  • and then, putting him in a position where he wouldn't re-offend.


  • We recovered 75 percent of the computers that he sold

    立ったまま 小さいサンドイッチに かぶりついていると—

  • and gave them back to Best Buy,


  • and came up with a financial plan


  • to repay for the computers we couldn't recover.


  • Christopher did community service.

    若い男性がニコニコと 手を振りながら近づいてきました

  • He wrote an essay reflecting on how this case could impact his future

    見たことある顔でしたが どこでかは思い出せずにいると

  • and that of the community.


  • He applied to college,


  • he obtained financial aid,

    「あなたのご親切で 人生が変わりました」

  • and he went on to graduate from a four-year school.


  • (Applause)

    あの時 私は起訴せず

  • After we finished hugging, I looked at his name tag,


  • to learn that Christopher was the manager of a large bank in Boston.


  • Christopher had accomplishedand making a lot more money than me

    その代わり 私は彼に寄り添い

  • (Laughter)

    まずは自分がしたことへの けじめのつけ方を教え

  • He had accomplished all of this

    そして過ちを繰り返さぬよう 手を打ちました

  • in the six years since I had first seen him in Roxbury Court.

    売ったコンピューターの 75%を一緒に取り戻し

  • I can't take credit for Christopher's journey to success,


  • but I certainly did my part to keep him on the path.


  • There are thousands of Christophers out there,


  • some locked in our jails and prisons.


  • We need thousands of prosecutors

    この事件が自分の未来や社会に どう関わるのかという作文を書きました

  • to recognize that and to protect them.


  • An employed Christopher is better for public safety than a condemned one.


  • It's a bigger win for all of us.

    進学し 4年制大学を卒業したのです

  • In retrospect, the decision not to throw the book at Christopher


  • makes perfect sense.


  • When I saw him that first day in Roxbury Court,

    ボストンの大きな銀行の マネージャーでした

  • I didn't see a criminal standing there.

    クリストファーは成功を収め 私よりずっと稼いでいました

  • I saw myself – a young person in need of intervention.


  • As an individual caught selling a large quantity of drugs in my late teens,


  • I knew firsthand the power of opportunity

    ロクスベリー裁判所で初めて会ってからの 6年で達成していたのです

  • as opposed to the wrath of the criminal justice system.

    クリストファーの成功が 私のおかげだとは言いませんが

  • Along the way, with the help and guidance of my district attorney,

    そこまでの道から外れないように 手を貸したことは確かです

  • my supervisor and judges,


  • I learned the power of the prosecutor


  • to change lives instead of ruining them.


  • And that's how we do it in Boston.

    彼らを守ってやれる検察官が 何千と必要です

  • We helped a woman who was arrested for stealing groceries to feed her kids

    有罪にするよりも 職を与えるほうが 公共にとっては安全です

  • get a job.


  • Instead of putting an abused teenager in adult jail

    思い返すと クリストファーを 厳罰に処さなかったのは

  • for punching another teenager,


  • we secured mental health treatment and community supervision.


  • A runaway girl who was arrested


  • for prostituting, to survive on the streets,

    犯罪者ではなく 私自身— 干渉を必要とする若者でした

  • needed a safe place to live and grow --

    10代後半に大量の薬物を売って 捕まったことのある私は

  • something we could help her