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  • [Music]

  • (Pip Russel): Sheltered from the Pacific Ocean by 4 large barrier sand islands,

  • Moreton Bay contains an extensive area of tidal wetlands,

  • onsisting of intertidal sand and mudflats, seagrass beds, mangrove forests, salt flats and salt marshes.

  • [Music]

  • This extensive intertidal area supports a diverse range of rare, vulnerable and endangered species,

  • including 42 species of shorebirds.

  • Up to 50 000 individual shorebirds migrate here every year. So, what is a shorebird?

  • [Music]

  • (Andrew Geering): Shorebirds are a group of birds that live along the, the coastline.

  • They have long legs and pointy wings and long, long bills adaptations to feeding in the mudflats around here

  • and also for a highly migratory lifestyle.

  • Overall, they comprise about 10% of the total number of species found in Australia

  • so theyre a very significant component of our, our aviary corner.

  • Not all birds that, um, feed on the shorelines are classified as being shorebirds,

  • and their closest relatives are birds like gulls and terns.

  • (Pip Russel): While it’s easy to spot gulls and terns in the bay,

  • migratory shorebirds are a lot more timid and harder to see in their environment.

  • In fact, most people don’t even know theyre there until they frighten them into flying away.

  • [Music]

  • The East Asian Australasian Flyway is the outline of the many parts that migratory shorebirds take on their journey.

  • The majority of migratory shorebirds that use Moreton Bay travel here from breeding sites in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • This path has been recognised internationally as one of the world's most important flyways.

  • Many staging points for shorebirds along the East Asian Australasian Flyway

  • are being threatened by human development.

  • Our flyway is the most human populated flyway with the fastest economically developing countries in the world.

  • The rapid rate of industrialisation has meant the erasure of many wetlands along the flyway,

  • by pollution, excess sediments and nutrients in the catchments, or by building over them.

  • Without healthy feeding and roosting sites and the peace to use them in, shorebirds are unable to rest and eat.

  • These healthy stopovers with productive wetlands and roosting sites can mean the difference

  • between life and death.

  • So, what exactly are wetlands?

  • (Earnshaw State College student): Wetlands are places where the water meets the earth.

  • Like, for example, lakes, swamps, estuaries, mangrove forests, seagrass beds, reefs and salt marshes.

  • (Pip Russel): Wetlands are so important to life that in 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar, representatives of 18 nations,

  • including Australia, signed The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

  • to stop the loss of wetlands across the world and conserve and manage remaining wetlands.

  • The Moreton Bay Ramsar site listed in 1993 covers over 113 thousand hectares

  • and includes large sections of the bay and surrounding barrier sand islands.

  • In addition to Ramsar, Australia has increased protection of shorebirds

  • by signing migratory bird agreements with flyway partners.

  • They protect birds from disturbance and hunting, and also preserve their breeding,

  • feeding and resting sites from reduction and destruction.

  • [Waves crashing on the beach]

  • You may not be able to see it from the shore but under the intertidal waters,

  • the wetlands of Moreton Bay support an ecosystem rich in marine worms, molluscs and crustaceans

  • that burrow or crawl along the surface. An excellent feeding ground for shorebirds.

  • These Bar-tailed Godwits will sometimes submerge their bills all the way up to their face

  • in the water when probing for prey.

  • Their sharp bills and long legs allow them to be very successful feeders.

  • (Earnshaw State College student): Small birds like the Red-necked Stint come running across the sandbanks around this area.

  • They use their beaks to get, dig down into the sand and peck at some empty pods that they eat.

  • (Pip Russel): The Red-necked Stint, which breeds mainly in far Northern Russia and Siberia,

  • is the smallest shorebird to visit Australia.

  • While it weighs about as much as this chocolate bar, which is only 25 grams,

  • it undertakes one of nature’s most incredible journeys, a flight of over 12 000 kilometres,

  • stopping briefly at staging points along the flyway.

  • In a lifetime, its tiny body will carry it over 400 000 kilometres, which, believe it or not,

  • is further than the distance from Earth to the Moon.

  • (Andrew Geering): They will lose nearly half of their body weight through migration so you can imagine,

  • that by the time they reach here, theyre pretty starved.

  • Birds are driven by the tide cycles not by day and night.

  • At high tide they will move off their low tide feeding grounds and theyll congregate in sites like here

  • to rest for about 3 or 4 hours.

  • (Pip Russel): As the Australian winter nears, migratory shorebirds rapidly store reserves of fat

  • as their internal cues prompt them to get ready to travel back to their breeding grounds in the Arctic.

  • So, how do we find out which birds travel to what countries and how do we find out

  • the number of shorebirds in Moreton Bay over the summer?

  • (Andrew Geering): The Queensland Wader Study Group has a count program;

  • a whole lot of people will go to different sites around, around Moreton Bay

  • and also different places along the Queensland coast.

  • And we try and do a simultaneous count of all the shorebirds.

  • (Pip Russel): As part of ensuring that shorebirds have a safe place to rest in Moreton Bay,

  • a number of artificial roosts have been constructed.

  • These constructed sites complement the natural roosting areas in the region.

  • The largest of the artificial roosts has been developed by the Port of Brisbane.

  • The constructed roost will provide a permanent roosting site for the future.

  • (Scott McKinnon): Weve developed a shorebird management plan that guides the management of both,

  • the constructed bird roost and other shorebird roosting areas around the port.

  • As part of that management plan, we undertake monthly shorebird counts in conjunction with

  • the Queensland Wader Study Group, and the data that we collect guides some of our management

  • of shorebirds at the port here, and we also make that data available for other shorebird management agencies,

  • both locally, nationally and internationally.

  • (Jennifer Singfield): It is essential that we in the international community who live along their flyway all work together.

  • Brisbane City Council and Narashino Council have been involved in the

  • Wetlands Affiliation Agreement for the past ten years.

  • This agreement concentrates on research, conservation, education and community awareness.

  • (Pip Russel): As Queenslanders, we love our beaches and wetlands.

  • Swimming, sunbaking, canoeing, bike riding and fishing are only some of the activities we love to do

  • in the same areas that shorebirds depend upon.

  • Humans, dogs, vehicles and vessels can disturb the shorebirds, causing them to take flight

  • and waste precious energy reserves.

  • (John Esdaile): Disturbing shorebirds is an offense anywhere in Moreton Bay Marine Park.

  • Sandbars still exposed at high tide, like this one, can provide prime habitat for shorebirds

  • so if youre out boating or fishing, driving on the beach or simply going for a stroll along the foreshore,

  • keep a look out and give the birds a wide berth.

  • (Melissa Cooper): When visiting these magnificent shorelines, these mudflats and sand flats, it’s very important to keep your dog leashed.

  • You don’t want them chasing the birds. Admire these magnificent birds from a distance.

  • (Pip Russel): When enjoying the beaches and wetlands throughout Moreton Bay, it’s important to remember that we are

  • sharing these areas with other animals, who depend on the shores to survive.

  • [Music]

  • We are incredibly lucky to live in such a diverse, temperate and unique city so close to internationally recognised areas.

  • These natural sites are home to so much life and unspoiled beauty, and they need our protection

  • because once theyre gone, theyre gone for good.

  • So we can act now to preserve the biodiversity of our bays and city that provide the habitats for our shorebirds.

  • [Music]

[Music]

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B2 中上級

海岸線を共有する (Sharing Shorelines)

  • 92 9
    Anbe2623 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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