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CNN Student News is kicking off its last week on air in 2015.
We're grateful to have you with us. I'm Carl Azuz at the CNN Center.
First up, what's being called a landmark agreement in the French capital.
On Saturday, at the United Nations Conference on Climate Change,
delegates from around the world formally accepted a plan
to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
Most scientists blame greenhouse gases, or carbon emissions,
for causing global temperatures to heat up over the past 100 years.
The agreement reached in Paris would legally require countries
to significantly reduce their carbon emissions in the decades ahead,
with the goal of keeping global temperatures from rising.
Even if all the initial targets set in Paris are met,
we'll only be part of the way there when it comes to reducing carbon
from the atmosphere, so we cannot be complacent because of today's agreement.
The problem's not solved because of this accord.
But make no mistake, the Paris agreement establishes
the enduring framework the world needs to solve the climate crisis.
But though an agreement was reached in principle,
it still has to be approved by the different countries involved.
For instance, two thirds of the US Senate
must approve a treaty before it can be ratified.
Republicans control the Senate.
Many of them have said that limiting carbon emissions
could hurt the US economy. And some agree with climate change skeptics
who say human activity does not significantly affect global temperatures.
From France we're headed to the Middle East now
where preliminary results from an election on Saturday
indicate that at least six women will hold public office in Saudi Arabia.
This is historic for the kingdom.
Its government is a monarchy and this was the first election
in which women were allowed to vote and run for office.
The positions they were elected to mostly involved planning
and development in the country. And there were complaints about the process.
Critics say there were a limited number of registration centers.
Some women told Human Rights Watch that they had trouble
proving their identity and residency.
Female candidates had to have separate campaign offices from male ones.
They weren't able to speak to male voters.
Still, this came as a significant change for Saudi Arabia.
I've spent years covering the Middle East and the Gulf region,
and the issue of women's rights in Saudi Arabia often comes up.
The kingdom is absolute monarchy ruled by the Al- Saud family.
Now, they govern according to a strict interpretation of Sunni Islam.
Women need the permission of a male guardian to travel to work,
to attend higher education, or to marry.
But Saudi Arabia does have a very young population.
The median age there just 26.
Many that I've spoken to say that the role of women in the country is evolving.
Now, 2015 marked the first year that Saudi women
were allowed to campaign for public office
and to register to vote at the municipal level.
And that came two years after former King Abdullah decreed
that women must make up at least 20 % of the Shura Council.
Now, that is an appointed body that drafts laws and advises the king on major issues.
More Saudi women are also joining the workforce.
Only about 19 % of them currently perform paid work,
but the Saudi government says their numbers have risen considerably,
from 23, 000 in 2004 to over 400, 000 in 2014.
Now, women are still required to cover their hair and wear long clothing in public,
but in many malls and hotels these days, women are seen without head scarves.
Perhaps the most visible sign of women's rights in Saudi,
or not, as the case may be, is that they are not allowed to drive.
Well, the women that I've met there tell me they are often frustrated
by the West's focus on this topic, and they feel it ignores
the other positive steps they say have been made.
But proponents for change say allowing women to drive
would be a big step towards opening other doors of opportunity.
We're going east to west to far east on today's Roll Call.
On Friday's transcript page, we got a request from the Miami Lakes Educational Center.
It's great to see the Jaguars today in Miami Lakes, Florida.
From the Sunshine State to the Golden State,
Hesperia Jr. High School is in Hesperia, California.
We're catching up with the Road Runners.
And in Taiwan, thank you for making us part of your day at Morrison Christian Academy.
Hello to our viewers in Taipei.
Time for the shoutout. Which of these is a complex weather pattern
that involves warmer than normal temperatures in the Pacific Ocean?
If you think you know it, shout it out.
Is it La Ni a, polar vortex, stationary wave, or El Ni o?
You've got three seconds. Go!
El Ni o was first recognized in the 1600s.
The name refers to the little boy or Christ Child in Spanish,
as it tends to occur around Christmas.
That's your answer, and that's your shoutout.
If you're dreaming of a white Christmas, the dream may be as close as you get.
'Tis the season for unseasonably mild temperatures in the US.
With 321 million people, it's the world's third most populated country.
Over the weekend, 75 % of that population felt temperatures
greater than 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
That's more like late September than mid- December.
Meteorologists are blaming El Ni o.
It's a natural phenomenon caused by warm temperatures
over the Pacific Ocean. And it can affect weather patterns around the world,
especially in the US. It's keeping cold air bottled up in the arctic instead of spilling south.
Nearly the entire country is asking the same question.
Where's winter? Who took it? That would be El Ni o.
That's exactly what we'd expect in a very strong El Ni o year.
If we look back to 1982, 1997,
what happened in those years, exactly this.
Much warmer than normal temperatures across the eastern half of the United States.
Last year Buffalo had Snow- vember.
This year, not a flake on the ground.
And although January and February shape up the same way above normal,
above normal if your normal is 15, is still cold enough to make big snow.
This is clearly an El Ni o pattern, a very strong El Ni o pattern.
Warmer than normal across the north. Cooler than normal across parts of the south.
And still wetter than normal across the southwest.
But where's winter? Right now it's nowhere to be found.
Makes sense that the US Army and the US Navy would have a major football rivalry.
Their annual meeting is called America's Game.
And over the last 125 years, the Army has 49 wins, the Navy 60,
including the midshipmen's victory on Saturday.
There's a tradition the two sides have that's based neither on land nor sea.
Today we're giving you a bird's eye view of the army's black knights
who deliver their game ball from the air.
Think I was ten years old. I came up here for a football game
and I saw them jumping the game ball and I thought, wow,
I could picture myself doing that.
I know they take great pride as a cadet to have that fly.
And to just be a part of history
and to jump into any Army game is just quite a privilege.
It really has to do how well you're doing at practice.
You have to earn that slot to jump into the stadium.
It's not always a guarantee that you get a stadium slot.
So as you start to free fall, it feels like the wind's rushing in your face
similar to if you put your hand out the car window.
First I was selected for the outfit, and then after that, we thought,
who better to deliver the ball than Santa's helper, cuz Santa's a little bit too big.
It's a very exciting feeling. I can actually hear the crowd when I'm on the canopy.
Another beautiful landing. Even before the game,
you're seeing flags fly, incredibly distant field goals,
and of course, amazing touchdowns.
It's something no player or fan would pass on.
It's video they'd want to run back.
It's a top flight tradition that any aspiring paratrooper
would want to shoot for. I'm Carl Azuz for CNN Student News.
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December 14, 2015 - CNN Student News with subtitle

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