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- WELCOME TO THE SECOND SECTION ON OUR SERIES ON MINERALS.
AND THIS SECTION IS GOING TO COVER CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS.
WE'RE GOING TO START BY TALKING ABOUT CALCIUM.
CALCIUM IS THE MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN THE BODY.
AND WHEN MOST PEOPLE HEAR ABOUT CALCIUM,
THEY DEFINITELY THINK OF BONE.
AND BONE MINERALIZATION IS ONE OF CALCIUM'S MAIN ROLES.
AND CALCIUM IS STORED IN THE BONE,
WHICH IS WHY IT'S THE MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN THE BODY.
BUT CALCIUM ALSO HAS A NUMBER OF OTHER ROLES, INCLUDING:
NERVE TRANSMISSION, TRANSPORT OF IONS,
BLOOD PRESSURE, BLOOD CLOTTING, AND MUSCLE CONTRACTION.
THE BODY KEEPS CALCIUM WITHIN THE BLOODSTREAM
UNDER REALLY TIGHT CONTROL.
IT DOESN'T LET IT GET TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW.
IN GENERAL WHAT HAPPENS IS WE CONSUME FOOD WITH CALCIUM,
CALCIUM IS ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.
NOW THAT WILL ELEVATE THE CALCIUM A LITTLE BIT.
IF THAT'S THE CASE,
CALCIUM CAN BE USED TO MINERALIZE BONE.
BUT IF CALCIUM LEVELS DROP THEN ABSORPTION
WITHIN THE INTESTINES ACTUALLY INCREASES,
PULLING MORE CALCIUM INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.
IN ADDITION, BONE IS ACTUALLY BROKEN DOWN
AND CALCIUM IS RELEASED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM,
TO BRING THE LEVEL OF BLOOD CALCIUM
BACK UP TO ITS NORMAL RANGE.
THERE ARE A NUMBER OF SOURCES OF CALCIUM.
AND I THINK MOST OF US THINK OF DAIRY WHEN WE THINK OF CALCIUM.
AND YOU CAN SEE IT AT THE TOP OF THE LIST HERE.
WE HAVE MILK AND YOGURT.
NOW I WANT TO POINT OUT MOST PEOPLE, MOST ADULTS,
WILL NEED ABOUT A THOUSAND MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM A DAY.
AND IF YOU REMEMBER BACK
WHAT OUR DEFINITIONS OF GOOD SOURCE AND HIGH-END ARE,
10-19 PERCENT IS A GOOD SOURCE.
THAT MEANS THAT 10-19 PERCENT THAT MEANS THAT 100 MILLIGRAMS
OF CALCIUM OR MORE WILL BE A GOOD SOURCE PER SERVING.
AND 200 MILLIGRAMS OR MORE WILL BE HIGH-END,
THAT MEANS HER SERVING THAT FOOD OR FOOD PRODUCT
WOULD BE HIGH-END CALCIUM.
SO YOGURT, DEFINITELY GETS A STAR.
MILK GETS A STAR.
BUT ALSO LOOK AT COLLARD, COLLARD GREENS,
AND THEY'RE GOING TO BE UP THERE, AS WELL.
CAN SALMON, THAT'S WITH THE BONES,
180 MILLIGRAMS, SO THIS IS DEFINITELY
A GOOD SOURCE ALONG WITH CALCIUM SET-TOFU.
MOST TOFU IS ACTUALLY SET IN CALCIUM
SO YOU CAN PRETTY MUCH RELY ON CALCIUM TO BE A GOOD SOURCE.
THE AMERICAN CHEESE,
I DON'T RECOMMEND EATING AMERICAN CHEESE;
IT'S HIGHLY PROCESSED AND DOESN'T REALLY RESEMBLE CHEESE.
BUT IT IS A GOOD SOURCE,
AS IS COTTAGE CHEESE, BLACK-EYED PEAS AS WELL.
THERE ARE OTHER SOURCES OF CALCIUM THAT, YOU KNOW,
WHAT I WANT YOU TO GET FROM THIS IS THAT
ARE OTHER SOURCES OF CALCIUM AND I'M GONNA--
THE NEXT SLIDE IS GOING TO SHOW EVEN MORE SOURCES THAT
CAN GIVE YOU ENOUGH CALCIUM WITHOUT EATING DAIRY PRODUCTS.
SO IF YOU CAN'T EAT DIARY, AND A LOT OF PEOPLE CAN'T,
DON'T FEEL LIKE YOU HAVE TO RELY ON THAT
OR ON SUPPLEMENTS TO OBTAIN ENOUGH CALCIUM.
NOW, I PUT THESE DOWN HERE.
THESE ARE NOT TECHNICALLY GOOD
SOURCES BUT THEY ARE SOURCES OF CALCIUM,
BUT THEY DON'T FIT OUR DEFINITION.
SO: SOY MILK;
A LOT OF PEOPLE ALWAYS SAY ORANGES ARE GOOD
SOURCE OF CALCIUM, THEY'RE REALLY NOT;
ALMONDS DO HAVE CALCIUM BUT YOU CERTAINLY HAVE TO
EAT ENOUGH A LOT OF THEM, TO GET ENOUGH OF THE CALCIUM.
THIS CHART, ACTUALLY THIS IS FORM A
STUDY FROM THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION,
LOOKING AT HOW--
LOOKING AT THE BIO-AVAILABILITY OF CALCIUM.
WHAT THAT MEANS IS HOW MUCH CALCIUM
IS ACTUALLY ABSORBED FROM THE FOOD.
AND YOU MIGHT BE SURPRISED BY THIS.
WE USE MILK AS OUR COMPARATIVE,
SO EVERYTHING IS COMPARED TO MILK.
AND MILK HAS 300 MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM PER SERVING.
SO REMEMBER, 200 MILLIGRAMS OR MORE WOULD BE 20 PERCENT;
THAT WOULD BE HIGH-END.
SO THIS IS HIGH-END CALCIUM.
SO EVERYTHING IS RELATED TO MILK.
SO LET'S START BY LOOKING AT SOME MILK PRODUCTS,
SIMILAR MILK PRODUCTS:
CHEDDAR CHEESE IS 300;
CHEESE-TYPE FOODS, THAT'S NOT REAL FOOD,
BUT CHEESE FOODS; YOGURT;
AND THEN WE TALKED ABOUT OUR CALCIUM WITH TOFU.
THESE ARE ALL SOURCES OF CALCIUM AND YOU CAN SEE
THEY'RE IN BETWEEN THE 250-300 RANGE.
AND LOOK OVER HERE.
HOW MANY SERVINGS WOULD YOU NEED TO EAT OF EACH
OF THESE FOODS TO EQUAL ONE SERVING OF MILK?
AND YOU NEED ABOUT ONE.
FOR EACH OF THESE YOU NEED ABOUT ONE
SERVING TO EQUAL A SERVING OF MILK.
SO THAT MEANS IT ACTUALLY EQUALS 300 MILLIGRAMS
OF CALCIUM BECAUSE OF THE RATE IT'S ABSORBED.
WELL, LET'S LOOK AT SOME OF THE CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES.
SO IN PARTICULAR THEY HAVE THE CHINESE
CABBAGE AND CHINESE MUSTARD GREENS.
AND THESE ACTUALLY WILL HAVE A--
LOOK AT IT, SO LOW 200s FOR HOW MANY
MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM PER SERVING.
REMEMBER MILK HAS 300 MILLIGRAMS PER SERVING.
BUT YOU ONLY NEED TO EAT ONE SERVING TO
EQUAL 300 MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM IN MILK.
AND WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT EVEN THOUGH THEY
HAVE LOWER LEVELS OF CALCIUM TO START WITH,
THEY'RE ABSORBED AT A GREATER RATE.
SO YOU'RE GETTING THE SAME AMOUNT OF CALCIUM ACTUALLY
ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM, AS YOU WOULD WITH MILK,
EVEN THOUGH IT STARTS WITH A LOWER AMOUNT OF CALCIUM.
NOW, IF WE GO UP, BUMP UP TO SOME OF THE DIFFERENT BEANS,
BEANS DO HAVE SOME CALCIUM.
ONLY THE WHITE BEANS REALLY ARE A REASONABLE SOURCE,
A GOOD SOURCE, BUT YOU NEED TO EAT
FOUR SERVINGS TO EQUAL ONE SERVING OF MILK.
AND THEN SPINACH.
SPINACH IS, YOU KNOW,
LOOKS LIKE A GOOD SOURCE OF CALCIUM, 115 MILLIGRAMS.
SO IT'S NOT QUITE AS HIGH AS THIS.
BUT HOW MANY SERVINGS DO YOU NEED TO EAT TO
EQUAL ONE CUP OF MILK, ONE SERVING OF MILK?
16, SO EVEN THOUGH IT LOOKS LIKE
SPINACH IS A GOOD SOURCE OF CALCIUM,
JUST BASED ON HOW MANY MILLIGRAMS IT HAS PER SERVING,
IT'S ACTUALLY NOT A GOOD SOURCE
BECAUSE IT HAS LOW BIO-AVAILABILITY.
IT DOESN'T GET ABSORBED WELL.
SO ON YOUR DIET STUDY,
IF YOU'RE LOW ON CALCIUM AND YOU SAY YOU'RE GOING TO ADD SPINACH,
I'M NOT AGAINST ADDING SPINACH TO YOUR DIET.
BUT YOU'RE DEFINITELY NOT GOING TO BE
INCREASING CALCIUM BY EATING SPINACH.
THE SAME IS TRUE FOR RHUBARB.
AND ALTHOUGH SWEET POTATOES AREN'T REALLY A GOOD SOURCE,
YOU CAN SEE THE SAME TYPE OF THING HAPPENS.
THERE ARE ENOUGH INHIBITORS IN THERE
TO LIMIT THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM.
A COUPLE FEW THINGS ON PHOSPHORUS.
PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM GO TOGETHER BECAUSE
THEY'RE BOTH IMPORTANT IN THE FORMATION AND
THE MINERALIZATION OF BONE, ALSO IN TEETH.
BUT PHOSPHORUS IS ALSO PART OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
NOW, WHAT'S A PHOSPHOLIPID?
IF YOU CAN REMEMBER BACK TO CHAPTER 5,
WE HAVE A TRIGLYCERIDE AND THEN THREE FATTY ACIDS.
AND THAT WOULD BE OUR TRIGLYCERYOL,
A GLYCEROL BACKGROUND AND THREE FATTY ACIDS.
BUT IF YOU REPLACE ONE FATTY ACID WITH
A PHOSPHATE YOU GET A PHOSPHOLIPID.
AND NOW REMEMBER, PHOSPHOLIPIDS WILL:
ONE, THEY ACT AS EMULSIFIERS;
THEY ALSO ARE PART OF CELL MEMBRANES.
THEY DO HELP BRING FAT,
ALLOW FAT TO TRAVEL IN AN AQUEOUS OR A LIQUID ENVIRONMENT,
SUCH AS THE BLOODSTREAM.
PHOSPHORUS ACTUALLY ALSO ACTS AS A
BUFFER AND IN THE RELEASE OF ENERGY.
YOU REMEMBER BACK FROM BIOLOGY?
HOPEFULLY YOU'LL REMEMBER FROM BIOLOGY ATP,
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE.
WHEN YOU LOSE ONE OF THESE PHOSPHATES AND MAKE ADP,
THERE IS A RELEASE OF ENERGY.
HERE ARE SOME SOURCES OF PHOSPHORUS, SOME FOOD SOURCES.
SOME OF THEM YOU'LL NOTICE ARE SIMILAR TO CALCIUM,
LIKE YOGURT AND MILK.
BUT ALSO SOME OTHER SOURCES, ANIMAL SOURCES:
CHICKEN AND BEEF, SALMON.
AND THEN LENTILS AND ALMONDS, AS WELL.
WELL, THIS IS GOING TO CONCLUDE THIS
SECTION ON CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS.
AND THE NEXT SECTION, WE'LL TALK ABOUT OSTEOPOROSIS.
 
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10.2 Minerals: Calcium and Phosphorus

751 タグ追加 保存
wenwen 2015 年 10 月 10 日 に公開
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