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My first time in Chicago was actually 40 years ago.
It was 1970, July.
I was among a handful of women who had a ticker tape parade down State Street,
and it was because we had just emerged from having spent
two weeks submerged in the sea. As aquanauts!
At the same time that there were astronauts flying in the sky,
you might remember, first footprints on the moon, 1969,
and there were still footprints being put there in 1970.
A dozen people have actually had the joy of seeing the world from high in the sky
looking back at this little blue speck in the universe.
It is so thrilling to hear Frans Lanting talk about that little blue speck in the universe,
to hear about the billions of years that have preceded the present time,
that have somehow, miraculously,
made this planet hospitable, for the likes of us.
It's just – when you really think about it, everything that we take for granted as children,
certainly I as a child didn't even question where air came from, it was just here.
Or the trees, the birds, the water that fell out of the sky.
Now, for the first time, we're beginning to put it together.
Just in time, perhaps. The pressure is on.
For the first time, we're beginning to see the limits of what we can do
to this place that is our only home.
There may be other places out there that look pretty attractive,
possible places where there could be water, might be life,
but to transport seven billion of us, or even a few of us,
to as close a place as Mars, is a really big deal.
We have to come to grips with taking care of this magical place that is our home.
So, If I could, right now,
I would take all of us and take the plunge into the blue heart of the planet.
You know, it was so easy to come up with the wish.
If somebody asked you, "What would you wish for?
We'll help you make it come true".
For me it was just this distillation of what I've been trying to do for most of my life,
to take care of the blue part of the planet.
The critters that live there, the water itself.
Because it does drive the way the world works.
No water, no life. No blue, no green.
It's just a fact.
97% of Earth's water is out there in the ocean.
The hard part of this challenge, to come up with a wish,
was cramming it into 18 minutes
and being able to articulate it to the world,
to do what TED asks you to do,
that is, scrunch it down and make a case for your wish.
And then maybe we'll help you out. And they have. They have enormously.
With ways of causing people to think differently about the ocean,
and it's high time that we really did so
because right now, you can go almost any place on the planet,
with cars, airplanes, walking, climbing, whatever.
But in the ocean, less than 5% of it has been seen, let alone explored.
Part of it is because we don't have gills.
It's one of the things I almost wished for. (Laughter)
Something realistic like, "Let's save the ocean."
Actually, my wish was even bigger than that.
I've taken a sidelong crack at it and that is, I'd like to have world peace.
Who wouldn't like to have world peace?
But for us to have world peace as we think of it,
making peace among ourselves,
means we must, must, must make peace with the natural world!
We are, as Jason Clay has described, eloquently,
we're chewing the planet to pieces.
We're consuming the world that keeps us alive.
And it isn't going to continue this way much longer.
If we don't take actions now - we have a chance -
but time is getting by. We have to explore.
Living underwater gave me new insights into the way the world works,
the creatures who live in the sea,
the underwater laboratory that I had the chance to use back in 1970
did not look quite like this.
This is the one that is currently in use,
one, there's just one, that really supports science,
going back to the mid-1970s, the idea began to catch on,
there were dozens of little underwater laboratories,
but over time we've kind of abandoned them,
the Aquarius, now in the Florida Keys, is still taking scientists and others
to see the world and stay underwater for days, weeks at a time.
But only in relatively shallow depths.
To go deeper one atmosphere, containers for people really seem to be the way to go,
just as going high in the sky we package ourselves,
to fly from one place to another.
We can't survive at 7 miles high in the sky.
The amount of oxygen is too little to support us,
and it's also pretty cold.
Going down deep in the sea 7 miles – huh, only two people have done this.
Only two!
Back in 1960, before there were astronauts on the moon,
but we have neglected the ocean
and the technologies that would get us to where we need to be
to understand the planet from the inside out.
I had the fun of using this system called the JIM, back in 1979,
for the first time, to be able to walk solo in a depth of that sort.
Since then I've had the chance to use these little one-person-subs quite a number of times.
They are so simple to drive that even a scientist can do it.
I'm living proof. (Laughter)
There're now about 20 of these little submersibles called "Deep Worker"
and they are out there, taking scientists and others to explore the ocean,
but we need lots of them.
We need a Hertz Rent-a-Sub. (Laughter)
And places so that you, if you want to go out and study the lakes here,
you can put one of these in the back of the truck
and drive off into the depths of the lake
or go off to the beach and into the sea.
We need to know. It's only through knowing that people can care.
You might not care if you do know,
if you know what's there, you know what's at stake.
You might not care with knowing, but you can't care if you don't know.
It starts with exploration.
And we are way behind the curve with respect to exploring the ocean.
Last year, I had the chance to try this little bubble sub
in a beautiful place where nature is still in pretty good shape:
Cocos Islands off the coast of Costa Rica.
And just a few weeks ago I was in Lake Baikal in this Russian submarine, the "MIR,"
that has the capability of going to a little more than half the ocean's depth.
About 6,500 meters.
The maximum depth: 11,000 meters.
Huh! Only two people have been to the maximum depth in all of history.
Round trip. One way trips are really easy. (Laughter)
I'm not advising that.
I'm advising that you take a look here with me,
at some of the history of going with William Beebe,
who was the first, along with Otis Barton, to see the world
as much as half a mile beneath the surface
in the waters of Bermuda.
Imagine climbing into a steel ball on the end of a cable
and allowing yourself to be dropped a half a mile beneath the surface.
William Beebe and Otis Barton were stunned with what they saw
and reported back in, for National Geographic, of course,
about the images of what they saw.
They did not have the fancy cameras that we have today.
What they had were their eyes and brain
and the ability to communicate to an artist back on the surface
who rendered images with paints and ink.
I think -- There we are.
Oh, good.
This has a voice on it and will take you into the sea.
(Video) : ...swiftest ocean currents.
(Video) : Humpback whales pass through these waters each year,
migrating from polar feeding grounds.
These waters are also known to legions of luminous deep sea creatures
and intrepid undersea explorers.
In the 1930s, zoologist William Beebe and engineer Otis Barton
descended 1,000 meters into the depths around Bermuda
for a first view of life in a place the sunlight never reaches.
(Music) (Underwater sounds)
Beebe compared what he saw to naked space itself,
out far beyond atmosphere, between the stars, with the blackness of space,
the shining planets, comets, suns and stars must really be closely akin to the world of life
as it appears to the eyes of an awed human being
in the open ocean, one half-mile down.
For Beebe and Barton, the comets, suns and stars were living creatures,
reflecting rainbows of iridescence,
were flashing, sparkling and glowing with their own living light.
Fireflies and glow worms are famous lightmakers on the land.
But in the deep sea, about 90% of the creatures:
jellies, fish, bacteria, shrimp, squids, and many others,
have some form of bioluminescence to signal one another.
Scientists say these bursts of starry light
may be the most common form of communication on the planet.
In the open sea, jellies are also among the most abundant forms of life.
The Gulfstream current can carry these oddly beautiful drifters along
at about 160 kilometers a day.
Buffered by the Gulfstream is a magically quiet, gently rotating mass of Sargassum weed
that expands over more than five million square kilometers of open waters.
Isolated by walls of fast-moving currents between Bermuda and Puerto Rico,
the Sargasso Sea holds a liquid jungle of creatures,
which have evolved over the ages to exist in floating forests of golden brown Sargassum.
Within its leafy, sunlit masses are camouflaged such creatures
as loggerhead turtles, file fish, sea hares.
Sylvia Earle: I think we'll leave it at that.
This is the only home that many of those creatures have.
It's also the part-time home for baby turtles and for young tunas,
and it's a floating golden forest.
It's a rain forest out there in the middle of the sea,
but it's even wetter than rainforests, filed with great diversity.
Actually, the ocean holds the greatest diversity of life on Earth,
no big surprise, it's where most of the water is, it's where most of the life is.
But the major divisions of life are all there.
Only about half of the big divisions of animal life have made it to the land.
Jump into the ocean and you'll meet some of these creatures that occur just in the sea.
We are just beginning to understand and appreciate
the nature of the creatures who share space with us on this little blue speck.
And it is time that we pulled out all stops and began to truly take seriously
what we're doing to the ocean, what we're doing to the diversity of life.
Every spoonful of water has creatures in it.
Thousands of microbes, literally billions of microbes,
but thousands of different kinds in a bucket of water.
In the gulp of a whale shark's maw, just one big gulp,
we may have more divisions of animal life represented
than in all the terrestrial parts of the planet put together.
It's enormous diversity. Also enormous ignorance.
And we have great power to destroy what's there.
Presently, we're looking at a time, just the last 50 years,
when 40% of the plankton is gone.
When fish, such as grouper, have declined by 90%.
And tunas. And swordfish. And sharks!
Creatures that are vital to the integrity of ocean systems.
One thing that I began to see,
spending thousands of hours in the ocean, face to face with some of these creatures,
is that they're all individuals. They're different.
They have different faces.
I suppose if a fish came swimming through this audience, looked around and said:
"Yeah, human beings, they all look pretty much alike to me."
But we know that we're all different
and so do they, I suppose, know that everyone is different,
and they recognize individuals.
But there is so much that we have to break through,
get out of our own shell and think about the world
from a standpoint of the other creatures who share a space with us
to realize that we have the power to eliminate creatures
that have preceded us by hundreds of millions of years.
Whether it's horse shoe crabs, or sharks, coral reefs or whatever.
This is a critical moment in history.
Seriously, we are at a point where we have the power to see the last of the tunas.
You can go to the grocery store and get tuna helper,
but what we need is help for the tuna.
We need to save tuna. We need to stop eating them.
These are big carnivores!
Most people would not think of eating snow leopards
but very casually, we'll open a can of tuna
not even knowing what a tuna looks like!
We have the power to eat our way through the ocean.
People are still eating whales, although by and large, we've stopped doing that.
This is a scene, though, from the Tokyo fish market.
A little picture of whale meat from just a couple of months ago when I visited there.
We now respect whales for other reasons,
although fortunes have been built by killing whales
and extracting the oil and meat and bone.
But the current way of understanding the value of living systems, living creatures
is beginning to get through to us.
Although we still kill some of our fellow mammals in the sea.
This scene the photographer David Doubilet took
in a cove in Japan a few years ago.
Again, our relationship with dolphins has taken a turn over the years.
We're no longer necessarily hunter-gatherers. Good thing!
Can you imagine feeding – huh – one billion people,
let alone seven, where we are now, or nine,
where we'll be by the middle of the 20th century, on songbirds?
On little furry things that we catch from the land?
The way our ancient ancestors did?
We can't do that anymore.
We have to look at the world with new eyes and figure out:
How do we make a go of it here with what we have available to us,
using our brains to find a sustainable place
for ourselves within the systems that keep us alive.
If we look at this image from space of Earth.
In all the history of the Earth,
it's only in the 20th century, and it's creeping into the 21st,
that the world's been illuminated like this.
All because of our appetite for fossil fuels that give us this wondrous power of light.
It's not that light is bad, it's not that the use of energy is bad,
but we have to figure out other ways of acquiring it.
We had a real wake-up call this summer about the power that we have to destroy –
the real cost of so-called cheap energy.
Look at creatures such as turtles and dolphins and whales,
orange roughy, fish that may live to be 200 years old,
they surely must know the changes that have taken place, at least some of them
may be conscious, that the world is a different place than it was
when they were little turtles, or little whales, or small fish.
The same period of time that we share
when there has been more change than during all preceding history.
They do not know why the world has changed.
And they don't know what to do about it.
We do know why and we have the power to do something about it.
That's the key.
Why am I so enthusiastic about new ways of looking at the world,
of new ways of looking at how we deal with the knowledge that we gain?
Because we have a chance! Not all of the ice is gone in polar seas.
There're still some walruses, still some polar bears in the world.
There's still a chance for polar bears.
There's still a chance for coral reefs,
although some are being affected by global warming -
even right now as I speak,
a warming trend that is causing the bleaching of corals around the world,
the loss of plankton that keeps us alive, as well as other creatures.
It keeps these creatures, my grandsons, alive.
Why do I care? Why do I have a vested interest in getting it right?
Because I know.
And you know, too, that we can make a difference
by protecting the natural world that keeps us alive.
We can secure our future.
If we don't, what will the kids, 50 years from now, say about us?
They'll say, perhaps: "Thank you for doing what you've done to keep our options open!
You could see what had to be done, and you did it! You turned the corner.
You kept things from going all the way to an end, a point of no return."
Or they might say: "You knew! And you didn't do what needed to be done."
We do have a choice.
The next 10 years may be the most important in the next 10,000 years.
Depending on what you do, what all of us together do, or fail to do.
Thank you.
(Applause)
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

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【TEDx】Oceans - Exploring the Deep: Sylvia Earle at TEDxMidwest

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Daphne Kao 2015 年 4 月 11 日 に公開
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