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  • Hi guys! In these tutorials I'll be talking about Linux programming and the Raspberry-Pi.

  • For those of you who don't know, the Raspberry-Pi is a £15 computer with the goal of teaching

  • children programming. The idea of these tutorials is to help new-comers to get to grips with

  • the basics of Linux. Once the Raspberry-Pi is released in December, I'll move onto how

  • to get it up and running and the various ways you can use it.

  • In the first tutorial, I will assume you are using Windows and will show you how to set-up

  • a virtual machine running Debian Linux. From here we'll set-up an environment similar to

  • the Raspberry-Pi so you can find your way around.

  • Okay, so the first thing you will need to do is downloadVirtual Boxwhich, basically

  • lets you install an operating system on your computer, inside the Operating System you

  • already have.

  • So, we'll go tovirtualbox.org”.

  • Okay, from here, you basically need to go to the downloads section... “Virtual Box

  • for Windows Hostsand click on “x86/amd64” and then just save this file wherever you

  • want to. I'm saving mine in the tutorial folder for this... in a downloads folder.

  • Okay... This is going to take a few minutes so while this is downloading we can head over

  • and download Debian... So, we go towww.debian.organd go [to] “Network Install”... Smaller

  • CDs and choose “i386”... and then save that file in the same place.

  • The reason why were are choosing thesmaller CDsis basically... Linux is a very modular

  • Operating System so, instead, you can download a tiny CD image and then only install the

  • packages you need from the Internet.

  • Okay... so both of them have downloaded now... So the first thing you need to do is install

  • Virtual Box”.

  • I would just leave this all as it is... Just the defaults. Short-cut on the desktop...

  • Okay, so what this is saying is... Basically it installs an extra network adaptor because

  • your virtual machines need to connect to the Internet or in this case it does anyway. So,

  • proceed with the installation now? Yes. Install...

  • Would you like to install this device software?” This is the USB drivers, so basically, you

  • can use it for testing hardware... So, for example, if you wanted to use a web-cam and

  • test your web-cam with Linux then you could directly pass it through to Linux... And this

  • is the network drivers as-well.

  • Alright, so we want to startVirtual Box”.

  • Right then... So... We want to gonew virtual machineand then let's call itRaspberry

  • Pi”.

  • Operating System... ChooseLinuxand thenDebian”.

  • Clicknext”. RAM, I'm going to give mine 256 “megof RAM because I want theModel

  • B” Raspberry Pi... And then, “create a new Hard Disk”... “8 gigwill be fine...

  • Virtual Box Disk Imageis fine... “Dynamically Allocated”... Yeah, you wanna pick this

  • because if you chooseFixed Sizethen the Virtual Hard Drive will always take up

  • 8 “gigeven though that space isn't needed. Where we going to save this... Yeah that can

  • be saved in there...

  • So this has made a new folder calledVirtual Box VMsinMy Documentsand then

  • a new folder calledRaspberry Piand the Hard Drive will be calledRaspberry

  • Pi.vbi”... “Create”... Yep...

  • Okay, so now we have created a our newVirtual Machine”... we need to load up theDebian

  • CD”... SoDouble-ClickonStorageand then go to theCD Drive”... It says

  • emptyand click on this icon here and then gochoose a Virtual CD/DVD Disk file

  • and choose the Debian image that you saved where theVirtual Boxinstall was before.

  • Okay... Right and then we can go ahead and run ourVirtual Machine”.

  • Right... Okay... All this is saying is when you click inside the Virtual Machine that

  • any keys you press on your keyboard will go straight to the Virtual Machine until you

  • pressRight CTRL”. So where it says theHost Key is currently defined as Right

  • CTRL”, when you press that, then you can use your keyboard to control the normal Operating

  • System again.

  • Okay... Yeah, that's fine... Okay... so we've got the Debian installer. Yep, that's fine...

  • Okay... so, then we goInstall”...

  • I'll just [erm] close these messages off...

  • Okay... So... Choose a language... I'm assumingEnglishso pressEnterto choose

  • that. Use the arrows to navigate the menu and then clickUnited Kingdomby pressing

  • enter.

  • British English”...

  • Okay...

  • So this is just loading components from the CD...

  • And then detecting the network hardware... And there we go!

  • It's [erm] your Virtual Machine is on the network... So... “Please enter the hostname”...

  • So that's “raspberrypi”.... Oops, spelled that wrong... “raspberrypi”... Okay...

  • Enter”.

  • Domain name”... I'm just going to puthome.org”. This is isn't really important.

  • Choose a mirror”... Yep, so this is just asking where it should get the packages from.

  • SoUnited Kingdomis the closest for me... And then any of these is fine.

  • Proxy Information”... If you use a proxy, then you'll have to put in the settings for

  • that here.

  • Right... Okay... “Root Password”... “Rootin Linux or Unix systems is the equivalent

  • ofadministratorfor Windows. So... Give it a strong password... And then you

  • have to re-enter to verify.

  • And then, the idea with Linux is you only switch to the root user when you are doing

  • administrative tasks.

  • So, the new user... So, you're supposed to make a standard user as-well... So [my name

  • is] “Liam Fraser”... And the user-name will beliamand the password will be...

  • Whatever I want it to be...

  • Okay... “Partitioning”... It's easier for now if we just chooseUse Entire Disk”...

  • And the installer will set that up automatically.... Just pressenteron this...

  • All files in one partition {recommended for new users}”... That's fine...

  • Finish partitioning and write changes to disk”... Yeah...

  • So, if you'll just wait while this is happening... It's just installing thebase system

  • and then you can pick extra packages to go on-top after this...

  • Yeah, this might take a few minutes...

  • Okay, so now the base install is finished... We've got this pop-up aboutpopularity

  • contestand that's basically saying it's going to submit the packages that you've installed

  • to Debian. It's up to you to if you want to choose this but I'm just going to dono

  • for now...

  • Okay... As this says... “At the moment, only the core of this system is installed.

  • To tune the system to your needs, you can choose to install one or more of the following

  • predefined collections of software.”... What I'm actually going to do is un-check

  • all of them... So you un-check them by pressingspace-bar”.

  • Basically, this is going to install the most minimal system possible. So we can then put

  • on what packages we need on the top... With the Raspberry-Pi it's going to be quite a

  • minimum system install anyway because of the RAM and the limited processing power... So...

  • Okay, this... Basically... “GRUBis a “boot loaderso, it's the first thing

  • that loads up when you turn the computer on... or in this case, theVirtual Machine

  • and it lets you choose what Operating System you want and [ahem] you just clickyes

  • to this... It's basically checking to see if you had any other Operating Systems installed

  • that you are not going to over-write anything.

  • Okay, so, the installation is completed. So it's time to boot into your new system. “Make

  • sure to remove the […] media”... Okay... So, the CD Drive is now empty... So it must

  • have been ejected automatically, so then you can click oncontinue”...

  • And the machine will restart.

  • Okay, so here we go... Debian Linux... The firstboot”...

  • This is going to look a lot different to Windows, if that's what you usually use... And it's

  • just something that you'd have to get used to... It seems daunting at the start but once

  • you get used to it, it's fine.

  • It's a lot more efficient than Windows as-well in some cases...

  • So... “login screen”... I'm going tolog-inasliam”... The user I made before...

  • And then type my password in... For security reasons on Linux, the password characters

  • don't actually show up, so even though I've typed my password in, nothing appears and

  • if you pressenter”... There we go...

  • Now we are in a “Linux terminal”.

  • Okay, the first thing that I am going to show you how to do is install a “desktop environment”.

  • So the first thing that you will need to do to do that is change torootbecause

  • to do anyadministrativetasks you need to change toroot”.

  • So... To do that, you have to type insuwhich stands forsubstitute user”...

  • su”, substitute user... And then typerootand press enter... And then it

  • will ask for therootpassword that you specified when you done the installation.

  • Pressenter”... And now you arelogged-inasroot”.

  • Thepackage management systemin Debian is calledapt-getand to use this you

  • just typeapt-get installand then we are going to install a “desktop environment

  • calledlxdeand as-well as that, you need to install thegraphics drivers”,

  • which are called “x11” and to get them you need to type inxorgand then press

  • enter”.

  • So, after that's installed, the next thing to do is install the “x serverdrivers

  • by goingapt-get install xserver-xorg-video-alland pressingenter”.

  • And then just clickyeson this...

  • And now we have installed everything we need, we canlog-outofrootby typing

  • inexitwhich will return to the previous user you werelogged-inas... And then

  • to start thedesktop environment”, you typestartxand then pressenter”.

  • And then, if you just wait a second... There you have it! We've gotlxde”!

  • Okay, so, now you're inlxde”... You've got a good opportunity to have a look around

  • and find out if everything works... Toshut downorrestarttheVirtual Machine

  • just click this power button here and chooseshut-downorreboot”. I'm just

  • going to reboot at the moment... Because you've installed a “desktop environmentnow,

  • the default option will be to start a “log-in managercalledGnome Display Manager”,

  • you'll see that after the system restarts...

  • While the system is loading I'd just like to take the opportunity to say thanks for

  • watching this tutorial and if you found it helpful, please subscribe and let me know

  • in the comments what the next tutorial should be on.

  • Okay, as you can see here, it saysstarting Gnome Display Manager”... and then... There

  • you have it... When it loads... Yep, there you go...

  • So, I would type inliamand type in my password... Pressenter”... And then

  • you're back intolxde”...

  • I'll try and get the next tutorial up for next week so that it's like a weekly series...Thanks

  • for watching and I'll see you next time... Cheers!

Hi guys! In these tutorials I'll be talking about Linux programming and the Raspberry-Pi.

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Raspberry Pi チュートリアル 1 - Debian Linux の紹介 (Raspberry Pi Tutorial 1 - An Introduction to Debian Linux)

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    Sea Monster に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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