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  • Hieronymus Bosch]; c. 1450 – 9 August 1516) was an Early Netherlandish painter. His work

  • is known for its use of fantastic imagery to illustrate moral and religious concepts

  • and narratives.

  • Life Hieronymus Bosch was born Jheronimus van Aken.

  • He signed a number of his paintings as Jheronimus Bosch. The name derives from his birthplace,

  • 's-Hertogenbosch, which is commonly called "Den Bosch".

  • Little is known of Bosch’s life or training. He left behind no letters or diaries, and

  • what has been identified has been taken from brief references to him in the municipal records

  • of 's-Hertogenbosch, and in the account books of the local order of the Illustrious Brotherhood

  • of Our Blessed Lady. Nothing is known of his personality or his thoughts on the meaning

  • of his art. Bosch’s date of birth has not been determined with certainty. It is estimated

  • at c. 1450 on the basis of a hand drawn portrait made shortly before his death in 1516. The

  • drawing shows the artist at an advanced age, probably in his late sixties.

  • Bosch was born and lived all his life in and near ‘s-Hertogenbosch, a city in the Duchy

  • of Brabant. His grandfather, Jan van Aken, was a painter and is first mentioned in the

  • records in 1430. It is known that Jan had five sons, four of whom were also painters.

  • Bosch’s father, Anthonius van Aken, acted as artistic adviser to the Illustrious Brotherhood

  • of Our Blessed Lady. It is generally assumed that either Bosch’s father or one of his

  • uncles taught the artist to paint, but none of their works survive. Bosch first appears

  • in the municipal record on 5 April 1474, when he is named along with two brothers and a

  • sister. 's-Hertogenbosch was a flourishing city in

  • fifteenth century Brabant, in the south of the present-day Netherlands, at the time part

  • of the Burgundian Netherlands, and during his lifetime passing through marriage to the

  • Habsburgs. In 1463, 4,000 houses in the town were destroyed by a catastrophic fire, which

  • the then 13-year-old Bosch presumably witnessed. He became a popular painter in his lifetime

  • and often received commissions from abroad. In 1488 he joined the highly respected Brotherhood

  • of Our Lady, an arch-conservative religious group of some 40 influential citizens of 's-Hertogenbosch,

  • and 7,000 'outer-members' from around Europe. Sometime between 1479 and 1481, Bosch married

  • Aleyt Goyaerts van den Meerveen, who was a few years his senior. The couple moved to

  • the nearby town of Oirschot, where his wife had inherited a house and land from her wealthy

  • family. An entry in the accounts of the Brotherhood

  • of Our Lady records Bosch’s death in 1516. A funeral mass served in his memory was held

  • in the church of Saint John on 9 August of that year.

  • Art

  • Bosch produced several triptychs. Among his most famous is The Garden of Earthly Delights.

  • This painting, for which the original title has not survived, depicts paradise with Adam

  • and Eve and many wondrous animals on the left panel, the earthly delights with numerous

  • nude figures and tremendous fruit and birds on the middle panel, and hell with depictions

  • of fantastic punishments of the various types of sinners on the right panel. When the exterior

  • panels are closed the viewer can see, painted in grisaille, God creating the Earth. These

  • paintingsespecially the Hell panelare painted in a comparatively sketchy manner

  • which contrasts with the traditional Flemish style of paintings, where the smooth surfaceachieved

  • by the application of multiple transparent glazesconceals the brushwork. In this painting,

  • and more powerfully in works such as his Temptation of St. Anthony, Bosch draws with his brush.

  • Bosch also produced some of the first autonomous sketches in Northern Europe.

  • Bosch's paintings with their rough surfaces, so called impasto painting, differed from

  • the tradition of the great Netherlandish painters of the end of the 15th, and beginning of the

  • 16th centuries, who wished to hide the work done and so suggest their paintings as more

  • nearly divine creations. Bosch never dated his paintings. Butunusual

  • for the timehe seems to have signed several of them, although some signatures purporting

  • to be his are certainly not. Fewer than 25 paintings remain today that can be attributed

  • to him. In the late sixteenth-century, Philip II of Spain acquired many of Bosch's paintings,

  • including some probably commissioned and collected by Spaniards active in Bosch's hometown; as

  • a result, the Prado Museum in Madrid now owns The Adoration of the Magi, The Garden of Earthly

  • Delights, the tabletop painting of The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things, the

  • The Haywain Triptych and The Stone Operation. Interpretations

  • In the twentieth century, when changing artistic tastes made artists like Bosch more palatable

  • to the European imagination, it was sometimes argued that Bosch’s art was inspired by

  • heretical points of view as well as by obscure hermetic practices. Again, since Erasmus had

  • been educated at one of the houses of the Brethren of the Common Life in 's-Hertogenbosch,

  • and the town was religiously progressive, some writers have found it unsurprising that

  • strong parallels exist between the caustic writing of Erasmus and the often bold painting

  • of Bosch. "Although the Brethren remained loyal to the Pope, they still saw it as their

  • duty to denounce the abuses and scandalous behaviour of many priests: the corruption

  • which both Erasmus and Bosch satirised in their work".

  • Others, following a strain of Bosch-interpretation datable already to the sixteenth-century,

  • continued to think his work was created merely to titillate and amuse, much like the "grotteschi"

  • of the Italian Renaissance. While the art of the older masters was based in the physical

  • world of everyday experience, Bosch confronts his viewer with, in the words of the art historian

  • Walter Gibson, "a world of dreams [and] nightmares in which forms seem to flicker and change

  • before our eyes". In one of the first known accounts of Bosch’s paintings, in 1560 the

  • Spaniard Felipe de Guevara wrote that Bosch was regarded merely as "the inventor of monsters

  • and chimeras". In the early seventeenth century, the Dutch art historian Karel van Mander described

  • Bosch’s work as comprising "wondrous and strange fantasies"; however, he concluded

  • that the paintings are "often less pleasant than gruesome to look at".

  • In recent decades, scholars have come to view Bosch's vision as less fantastic, and accepted

  • that his art reflects the orthodox religious belief systems of his age. His depictions

  • of sinful humanity and his conceptions of Heaven and Hell are now seen as consistent

  • with those of late medieval didactic literature and sermons. Most writers attach a more profound

  • significance to his paintings than had previously been supposed, and attempt to interpret it

  • in terms of a late medieval morality. It is generally accepted that Bosch’s art was

  • created to teach specific moral and spiritual truths in the manner of other Northern Renaissance

  • figures, such as the poet Robert Henryson, and that the images rendered have precise

  • and premeditated significance. According to Dirk Bax, Bosch's paintings often represent

  • visual translations of verbal metaphors and puns drawn from both biblical and folkloric

  • sources. However, the conflict of interpretations that his works still elicit raises profound

  • questions about the nature of "ambiguity" in art of his period.

  • In recent years, art historians have added a further dimension again to the subject of

  • ambiguity in Bosch’s work. They emphasized his ironic tendencies, which are fairly obvious,

  • for example, in the The Garden of Earthly Delights, both in the central panel, and the

  • right panel. By adding irony to his morality arenas, Bosch offers the option of detachment,

  • both from the real world and from the painted fantasy world. By doing so he could gain acceptance

  • among both conservative and progressive viewers. Perhaps it was just this ambiguity that enabled

  • the survival of a considerable part of this provocative work through five centuries of

  • religious and political upheaval. A recent study on Bosch's paintings alleges

  • that they actually conceal a strong nationalist consciousness, censuring the foreign imperial

  • government of the Burgundian Netherlands, especially Maximilian Habsburg. By systematically

  • superimposing images and concepts, the study asserts that Bosch also made his expiatory

  • self-punishment, for he was accepting well-paid commissions from the Habsburgs and their deputies,

  • and therefore betraying the memory of Charles the Bold.

  • Debates on attribution

  • The exact number of Bosch's surviving works has been a subject of considerable debate.

  • He signed only seven of his paintings, and there is uncertainty whether all the paintings

  • once ascribed to him were actually from his hand. It is known that from the early sixteenth

  • century onwards numerous copies and variations of his paintings began to circulate. In addition,

  • his style was highly influential, and was widely imitated by his numerous followers.

  • Over the years, scholars have attributed to him fewer and fewer of the works once thought

  • to be his, and today only 25 are definitively attributed to him.

  • Works

  • Footnotes

  • References Bax, Dirk., “Ontcijfering van Jeroen Bosch”.

  • Den Haag. Boulboullé, Guido,, "Groteske Angst. Die

  • llenphantasien des Hieronymus Bosch". In: Auffarth, Christoph, and Kerth, Sonja: "Glaubensstreit

  • und Gelächter: Reformation und Lachkultur im Mittelalter und in der Frühen Neuzeit",

  • LIT Verlag Berlin, pp. 55–78. Dijck, G.C.M. van. “Op zoek naar Jheronimus

  • van Aken alias Bosch. De feiten. Familie, vrienden en opdrachtgevers”. Zaltbommel:

  • Europese Bibliotheek. ISBN 90-288-2687-4 Fischer, Stefan. "Hieronymus Bosch. The Complete

  • Works", Cologne 2013. Gibson, Walter S. “Hieronymus Bosch”.

  • New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20134-X Koldeweij, Jos & Bernard Vermet & Barbera

  • van Kooij: Hieronymus Bosch. New Insights Into His Life and Work, NAi Publishers, Rotterdam

  • 2001. ISBN 90-5662-214-5 Marijnissen, Roger H.. “Hiëronymus Bosch.

  • Het volledige oeuvre”. Haarlem: Gottmer/Brecht. ISBN 90-230-0651-8

  • Pokorny, Erwin, "Hieronymus Bosch und das Paradies der Wollust". In: "Frühneuzeit-Info",

  • Jg. 21, Heft 1+2, pp. 22–34. External links

  • Jheronimus Bosch Art Center Bosch Bruegel Society

  • Hieronymus Bosch at Ibiblio Hieronymus Bosch - The complete works, 188

  • works by Bosch The nationalist and rational Jheronimus Bosch,

  • article by Paulo Martins Oliveira Bosch, the surdo canis

Hieronymus Bosch]; c. 1450 – 9 August 1516) was an Early Netherlandish painter. His work

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ヒエロニムス・ボス (Hieronymus Bosch)

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    Shujia Chen に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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