字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Hey folks, welcome back to the channel! Today, we're looking at yet another Asian transit powerhouse for our fourth episode of High Speed Rail Explained - South Korea. Although not as large or impressive on first glance as its East Asian neighbours in terms of scale, South Korea's high speed rail is quite extensive in terms of its population spread, and with its relatively low construction costs, it's a great case study, especially for North Americans. Let's go and take a look! [Music] South Korea's High Speed Rail history started in the 80's with the intention to relieve the country's primary corridor between Seoul and Busan, as congestion on the existing Gyeongbu expressway and Korail conventional rail line were starting to get out of hand. Construction officially started on the Gyeongbu HSR line in 1992, with France's Alstom, selected as the main technology partner for the system. This first section that started construction is a 57 kilometre section between Cheonan and Daejeon, which also served as a test track for the system. With the closing of the 20th century also came the 1997 Asian financial Crisis, which hit South Korea especially hard, and sacrifices had to be made in many areas, including with the Gyeongbu HSR line. The line was now split into two different phases for opening, with the first phase now only extending about ⅔ of the way to Daegu, with trains then traveling along the old conventional passenger rail corridor, which would be upgraded, to reach Busan. In total, 223.6 kilometres of high speed tracks, and 132.8 kilometres of conventional rail line upgrades and electrification was done for phase 1, and on April 1st, 2004, the first line of South Korea's High Speed Rail finally went into service. Expansion of the system soon followed, with the 128.1 kilometre Phase 2 Daegu to Busan high speed rail project starting construction in 2002 and entering service in 2010, with a few slower sections through the city centres. The next high speed line was the Honam High speed line, which connects Seoul with Mokpo and splits from the Gyeongbu line at Osong. Construction of the 230.99 kilometre line started in 2009, and the line officially opened in 2015. Besides these, higher speed lines that have operating speeds of above 200 km per hour also include the Jungang Line, which is another upgraded north south line. Currently the higher speed section only extends to Andong, but the rest of the line will be upgraded in the next few years as well. Another line is the Jeolla Line, which is yet another upgraded 200 kilometer per hour line travelling to the south of the country, and terminating at Yeosu. Next up, we have the Gyeonggang Line, which comprises two distinct sections, one of which serves the Seoul subway system, and the other serves the High Speed Rail KTX system, between Gangneung and Wonju. The line was opened in 2017 in anticipation of the 2018 Winter Olympics, and riders can enjoy a one seat ride from Seoul. There is also a small line named the Donghae Line which is also an upgraded higher speed line coming off of the Gyeongbu corridor. Most of the services on these auxiliary lines start from Seoul, and split off the main corridor. Now, all of the above lines we've looked at all belong to the KTX, or the Korea Train Express system, operated by national railway operator Korail. There is currently one more line that is not part of the KTX system, and that is the Suseo HSR line. This line is the first line in a separate system named SRT, short for Super Rapid Train, which is operated by SR Corporation. The service starts at Suseo Station in southeast Seoul in Gangnam, with trains operating to both Busan and Mokpo. As Seoul is a massive metropolitan area with KTX already servicing 3 stations, the underserved southeastern part of the city desired a High speed connection as well, and so the SRT was born to fill that gap, utilizing a separate corridor to travel south, until it joins in with the KTX services near Pyeongtaek - Jije. The systems are mostly segregated, using a different booking system and app, and the SRT trains do not stop at all the stops the KTX trains stop at, but it is cheaper and more convenient if one wanted to travel to the southeast of Seoul. In the future, the existing Gyeongjeon conventional KTX line will be upgraded from Masan to Bujeon station in Busan; it will have an operating speed of 200 km/h, opening sometime this year. The rest of the Jungang line to Singyeongju will also see upgrades to an electrified double-tracked line, which is scheduled to open later this year as well. There is also a section between Gomagwon and Imseong-ri on the Honam HSR opening in 2023 and a section between Songdo and Maesong on the Suin/Incheon KTX Line opening in 2024 to act as yet another termini station to the west of Seoul that will run onto other KTX services and share tracks with the current Suin-Bundang metro line. Two other lines under construction, named Jungbu naeryuk and Nambu naeryuk lines respectively, will give the inner cities of the country a much better connection all the way down to the southern city of Geoje. The first half of the line to roughly the halfway point is already under construction and will partly open this year, and most of the line will have a speed of 250 km/h aside from a small section between the two lines. There is also a planned connection of the line to Suseo station so SRT trains can run on the line as well. Service on the Gyeonggang Line will be extended too, with KTX planning a connection between the two previously segregated parts of the line so trains can run through the whole corridor, as well as extending the line westward to Incheon. And finally, there is a new planned line named the Seohae Line along the country's west coast that will have speeds up to 250 km/h and connect with the Honam corridor. A line to Jeju Island from Mokpo has been proposed, with air travel from Seoul to the prime tourist destination being one of the world's busiest air routes, although the Jeju government didn't love the idea as it wished to remain less dependent on the mainland. As for the SRT, there has been quite a lot of demand to extend the service to the destinations currently served by KTX. Besides the aforementioned Jungbunaeryuk connection that won't materialize for a while, SRT has also just been allowed to operate on the Jeolla line, so we'll soon see service on that line - maybe in a couple of years. Now, both the KTX and the SRT systems have enjoyed quite a lot of success in terms of ridership and popularity in the country, as getting to Seoul's high speed rail station is easier than going to the airport with all the extra security measures, and especially when you consider the fact that ticket prices are often cheaper than a comparable air ticket. A standard class weekday ticket from Seoul to Busan is around 50 dollars, and if you do like the premium experience in First Class or Business Class on a flight, there are also equivalent upgrades on the High Speed Rail Trains. Cumulative ridership on KTX has already exceeded 700 million since its opening in 2004, which is quite impressive especially when you consider the country's total population of just over 51 million, with the market share on these corridors, especially Seoul to Busan, already at 60% in 2008 and growing. In terms of rolling stock, the first generation of trains used were based on Alstom's TGV Reseau trains, with top operating speeds of up to 305 kilometres per hour, manufactured both aboard in France and locally by Hyundai Rotem. The newer generation of high speed trains are branded KTX-Sancheon, and are developed and manufactured in country for more control of the technology. These were delivered by Hyundai Rotem between 2006 and 2008, with a top design speed of 330 kilometres per hour. Another fleet of trains named KTX-Eum is the newest fleet of trains developed by Hyundai Rotem, although these currently have a lower max speed of 286 kilometres per hour, and only serve the lower speed lines. These were actually based on an experimental high speed train coded HEMU-430X developed earlier in the 2010's that actually reached top speeds of 421.4 km/h with a design speed of 430 km/h, making South Korea the 4th country in the world to develop high speed trains that can run above 420 km/h on conventional rails (nice). And finally, one of the most important aspects of a high speed rail system is its costs, Even though South Korea's High Speed Rail system might not be the largest or most extensive in the world, there is one stand out feature of the system, and that is the fact that the country is able to build new lines incredibly cheaply. Take the SRT line for example, with a new tunnel that needed to be constructed, the budgeted cost was just over 3 trillion Won - which comes to around 3.7 billion Canadian dollars. In comparison, the Eglinton Crosstown in Toronto costs about 5.3 billion dollars in terms of capital costs, although do bear in mind that the SRT line did share a lot of infrastructure, and the cost number did not include the rolling stock. Despite launching less than 2 decades ago, South Korea's high speed rail has already grown massively, covering the nation's most important corridors and still growing rapidly. We look forward to seeing the evolution of the system, especially in terms of technology export. If you'd like us to look into any of these services or projects in detail, make sure to leave a comment down below, and subscribe and hit the bell icon so you don't miss those videos. Thanks for watching, and we'll see you in the next time!