字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Hey folks, welcome back to the channel, and welcome back to High Speed Rail Explained. If you aren't already, follow us on Twitter and Instagram and consider supporting the channel on Patreon! Given our last episode in China we wanted to head to another great nation for railways that we also hadn't talked much about but, where we hope to make many videos in the future: Germany. Germany started developing high speed rail lines shortly after the opening and great success of the TGV in France however delays meant that the first services on the German high speed rail system known as I C E or Intercity Express did not run until the early 1990s. From here the network has expanded to encompass over 1500kms of track, connecting all of Germany's major cities as well as into neighboring countries. Let's get into it! We'll start our video by giving you a quick overview of the system. It should be noted that because Germany already had a heavily integrated passenger network and because it has many more major urban centres than France, it's high speed rail network developed very differently. While France was easily able to connect its major urban areas with a few brand new very high speed lines or LGV's, Germany like China needed to piece together more of a national grid network, and thus Germany's network of high speed lines is highly integrated with the traditional railways. Germany's dedicated high speed rail network started with the opening of the Hanover Wurzburg 280kph line, and the Mannheim Stuttgart 280kph line, both opening in 1991. Following this, in the late 1990's the Hannover Berlin 250kph high speed line was opened, though the name is a bit of a misnomer as it stopped short of actually reaching Hannover at full speeds. Next came the Cologne to Frankfurt 300kph line opened in 2002, the Nuremberg Ingolstadt 300kph line in 2006, the Erfurt Leipzig 300kph line in 2015, and most recently the Nuremberg Erfurt line in 2017. Now beyond these existing lines a number of new lines are also planned or under construction. Currently under construction is the Wendlingen Ulm 250kph line, as well as the Stuttgart Wendlingen 250kph line that is a part of the Stuttgart 21 project, which you can expect a video on in the future. There are also plans for a 250kph line between Ulm & Augsburg, as well as 300kph lines connecting Frankfurt & Mannheim, Hanau & Gelnhausen, and Bielefeld & Hannover. However, the most interesting aspect of Germany's High Speed Rail development has been its upgrading of sub 200kph lines many of which are over a century old to 200 or even 250kph standards. This is what has let Germany build such an impressive overall network without having to go to the extremes that some other countries have with plans that focus solely or mostly on 300+kph lines. In doing this Germany has brought the benefits of HSR to every corner of the country and has created a much denser and better connected HSR grid than neighboring France. Lines upgraded to 200kph include: Kehl–Appenweier, Bebra–Erfurt, Berlin–Halle, Hamm–Warburg, Wanne-Eickel–Hamburg, Köln–Duisburg, Dortmund–Hamm, Hanover–Hamburg, Hamm–Minden, Hanover–Minden, Leipzig–Dresden, Nuremberg–Würzburg, Rosenheim–Salzburg, Mannheim–Frankfurt, Hanau–Würzburg, Hanau–Fulda, Nuremberg–Augsburg, Lübeck–Puttgarden, Emmerich–Oberhausen, Plauen–Cheb, Munich–Mühldorf. Lines upgraded to 250kph include: Köln–Aachen, Mannheim–Offenburg, Offenburg–Basel. And finally, the stretch between Hamburg and Berlin is a bit special - it was upgraded to 230 kph, just shy of 250kph. Of course one of the unique elements of the EU is that rail services which cross international borders are quite ubiquitous which means Deutsche Bahn also operates services into surrounding countries including services to: Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, Innsbruck, Brussels & Zurich, There have also been proposals for Ice Trains to connect to London via the Channel tunnel though such plans have not yet amounted to anything concrete and may never happen because of changing political tides. Unsurprisingly as well, as ICE trains unlike many of China's High Speed Trains serve many Historic City Centre Terminals, speeds are restricted on final approaches into major cities, this does have the benefit of providing much more convenient city to city connections though. Given the frequent service and connectivity of ICE, the network has been a major success for Deutsche Bahn. With over half a billion passengers transported on the network by 2005 and more than three times that by 2020. Of course, as high speed rail is often more convenient than airline travel - the expansion of ICE has had major impacts within Germany and with aggressive climate goals it should be expected that ICE will have a growing impact on Germany's airlines domestic services in coming years. For rolling stock there are a number of variants which can mostly be sorted into three categories, ICE 1 and 2 which were introduced when the ICE network opened and are capable of speeds of up to 280kph. These trains are more traditional locomotive hauled sets. ICE 3 and ICE T which are electrical multiple unit sets the former of which is capable of 320kph speeds and the latter of which is capable of 230 kph speeds. They were introduced in 1999. Finally we have the newest trains operating on ICE, known as ICE 4. ICE 4 trains are made up of a mix of power and trailer cars which make them capable of speeds from 230 to 250 kph, if you are wondering why the newest ICE trains would not be capable of the highest possible network speeds this is because they were value engineered by DB as much of the network is only capable of speeds of up to 250kph - this is something which we think Amtrak should have done with its new Acela trains - as Reece mentioned in his video here. The ICE 4 sets are meant to replace initial ICE 1 and ICE 2 trains which have reached the end of their useful life - though this has been delayed by manufacturing flaws. Of course I should also note that while not in revenue service - Germany was an originator of high speed maglev technology and the Shanghai Maglev featured in our last episode was created by Siemens and ThyssenKrupp. Now, one other place that Germany has been highly successful is in it's export of HSR rolling stock and technology. The Siemens Velaro model upon which the ICE 3 is based currently operates in: Spain, Russia, The UK and France, Turkey, And China. In addition, Siemens has long promoted itself as a natural fit for production of trains for California's High Speed Rail, which does seem natural given the company's major presence in the state. Given all it's successes - it's clear that Germany is among the world's high speed rail leaders and it presents a model for countries with dense preexisting railway networks to upgrade them to provide broad benefits nationwide. You can expect many more videos on Germany's railways and transit networks in the future! Hope you enjoyed this second episode of High Speed Rail Explained - If you learned something from this video, make sure to like and subscribe, and comment down below to let us know what you want to see in the next episode of the series, and whether there's any topics in this video you'd like us to dive deeper into. Thanks for watching, and we'll see you in the next one!