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  • In a metal conductor, the positively charged particles are fixed in place,

    金属導体の中で プラスに帯電した粒子は動きません

  • whereas the negatively charged particles, called electrons, are free to move around.

    一方 マイナスに帯電した粒子-電子と呼びます-は自由に動き回ります。

  • A metal typically has an equal amount of

    金属は通常 プラスとマイナスの粒子を-

  • positively and negatively charged particles,


  • making the metal as a whole electrically neutral.

    なので 全体としては電気的に中立となっています。

  • If we apply a force trying to push extra electrons into this metal plate,


  • we will not be successful, because particles with the same charge repel one another.

    というのも 同じ電荷の粒子は反発しあうからです。

  • If extra electrons accumulate inside the metal plate,


  • they will repel each other and repel any of the new electrons trying to enter.

    互いに反発するし 入ってこようとする新しい電子に反発します

  • Therefore, even if we apply a force,

    それゆえ 力を加えてもー

  • the metal will remain electrically neutral.


  • Now, let us consider a new scenario where there

    さて 新しいシナリオに移りましょうー

  • is another metal plate close to the one shown.


  • As electrons accumulate in the first metal plate,

    電子は はじめの金属板に蓄積するとー

  • they will repel the electrons in the second metal plate.


  • The positively charged particles left behind in the second plate


  • will exert an attractive force on the


  • negatively charged particles in the first metal plate.


  • This makes it possible for the first plate to have

    このことで はじめの金属板は-

  • more negative particles than positive particles.


  • As we add electrons to the first metal plate, an equal


  • number of electrons leave the second metal plate.

    同じ数の電子が 2番目の金属板から出ていきます。

  • After a certain number of extra electrons accumulate on the first plate,


  • they will repel any new electrons trying to enter.


  • The first metal plate has developed a net negative charge,


  • and the second metal plate has developed


  • an equal and opposite net positive charge.


  • We can cause this equal and opposite charge on each plate to be larger


  • by applying a larger external force.


  • If we remove the external force we are applying,

    もし 加えている外力を取り除くと-

  • the extra electrons in the first metal plate


  • will continue to repel one another.


  • We have now returned to our original condition

    すると はじめの状態にもどって-

  • where the net charge on each plate is zero.


  • The two metal plates are what we call a capacitor.


  • Note: Voltage is shownupside downin this video


  • because the blue arrows will show electron flow.


  • By briefly connecting the capacitor to a battery as shown,

    図のようにコンデンサをバッテリーに 短時間接続することにより-

  • the two plates have developed equal and opposite charges.


  • If we then connect the capacitor across the light bulb,

    次に 電球の両端にコンデンサを接続すると-

  • all the extra electrons in the negatively charged plate will move

    負に帯電した金属板から 余分な電子がすべて-

  • to the positively charged plate through the light bulb.

    正に帯電した金属板へと 電球を通って移動します。

  • If we use multiple batteries in series, then


  • we can force the two plates of the capacitor to develop larger amounts of charge.

    コンデンサの 2つの金属板に より多くの電荷を発生させることができます。

  • When the capacitor is charged,


  • its voltage will be the sum of the voltages of all the batteries.

    その電圧は 全てのバッテリーの電圧の和となります

  • Charging the capacitor to a higher voltage will cause the


  • light bulb to stay on longer when the capacitor discharges.

    放電時に 電球はそれだけ長く点灯し続けます。

  • Now suppose that we increase the areas of the two metal plates.

    さて 金属板の面積を大きくしてみます

  • This increased area allows us to push more extra electrons

    面積の増加によって より多くの余分な電子を-

  • into the first metal plate, and remove more electrons from the second metal plate,


  • without applying a larger external force.


  • When a larger capacitor is connected to our battery,

    バッテリーに より大きなコンデンサがつながると-

  • it will take longer for the capacitor to charge to the voltage of the battery.

    コンデンサが バッテリーの電圧まで 蓄電するのに時間がかかります。

  • Although the final voltage is still equal to the voltage of the battery,

    最終的な電圧はバッテリーの電圧と等しいことに 違いはありません-

  • for a larger capacitor, this voltage represents

    しかし 大きなコンデンサの場合 この電圧は-

  • a larger amount of charge on the two metal plates.


  • The larger capacitor will take longer to discharge through the light bulb,

    大きなコンデンサは 電球から放電するのに時間がかかります-

  • thereby allowing the light bulb to stay on longer.

    その結果 電球を長時間点灯させることができます。

  • Suppose that we add a special material in between the two plates.


  • This material does not allow any particles to flow through it,


  • but it contains molecules that change their orientation

    しかし 向きを変える分子を含んでいます-

  • based on the charges on the two plates.

    向きは 2つの金属板の電荷に基づきます。

  • These molecules exert forces that attract more electrons to the negative plate,

    これらの分子は マイナスの金属板に対して より多くの電子を引き付ける力を及ぼし

  • and that repel more electrons from the positive plate.

    プラスの金属板から より多くの電子をはじきます。

  • The presence of this material has the exact same effect

    この物質の存在は 効果としては-

  • as does increasing the areas of the two metal plates.

    金属板の面積を増やすのと まったく同じです。

  • This allows the two plates to develop larger net charges,

    この物質により 印加する電圧が同じでも-

  • for the same amount of applied voltage.


  • When we increase the area of the two plates or add this special material,

    金属板の面積を増やすか この特別な物質を加えることを-

  • we say that we have increased thecapacitanceof the capacitor.


  • There is also a third way to increase the capacitance of a capacitor.

    コンデンサの静電容量を増やす 3番目の方法もあります

  • This is by moving the two metal plates closer together.


  • Because the two plates are now closer together,


  • they exert greater forces on each other's electrons.

    お互い 相手の電子により大きな力を及ぼします。

  • This attracts more electrons to the negative plate


  • and repels more electrons from the positive plate,

    正の金属板から より多くの電子がはじかれ-

  • allowing the two plates to develop larger net charges,


  • for the same amount of applied voltage.


  • This has the same effect as inserting the special material,


  • and as increasing the areas of the metal plates.


  • To create the largest capacitance possible,


  • we want to make the areas of the plates as large as possible,

    金属板の面積を できるだけ大きくし-

  • insert the special material in between the plates,

    金側板の間に 特別な物質を挿入し-

  • and move the two plates as close together as possible.

    そして 金属板同士をできるだけ近づけます。

  • The larger the capacitance, the more energy


  • will be stored for the same amount of voltage.


  • Much more information about electric circuits

    電子回路については 他にも

  • is available in the other videos on this channel.


  • Please subscribe for notifications when new videos are ready.


In a metal conductor, the positively charged particles are fixed in place,

金属導体の中で プラスに帯電した粒子は動きません


動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B2 中上級 日本語 金属 電子 電荷 電圧 粒子 はじめ

コンデンサと静電容量 - コンデンサの物理と回路動作 (Capacitors and Capacitance - Capacitor physics and circuit operation)

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    Amy.Lin に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日