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  • around the world today, there are few weapons as recognizable as the infamous a K 47.


  • To some, it's a symbol of oppression, toe others freedom, a rifle that it's so ingrained in the psyche of the world yet whose origin is surrounded in mystery.


  • But how did the Soviet tanks sergeant with no formal training or schooling and manufacturing helped create the world's most prolific weapon?


  • And how is its decades old design remained current.


  • At the end of World War Two, the people of the Soviet Union were feeling a mix of emotions.


  • On one hand, they were joyous that the deadliest conflict in history was over, but on the other they were cautious.


  • Soviet government found that no foreign power would ever invade Russian soil again.


  • They ensured so by not only claiming over a dozen satellite states in Eastern Europe, but by investing heavily in their defense industry.


  • By this time, the Soviets, along with the rest of the world, realized the inferiority of bolt action rifles.


  • Bolt action rifles such as the Russian most in the got were a deadly accurate and packed a huge punch.


  • But they severely limited the rate of fire of soldiers, as well as the amount of ammunition that could carry Soviet designers had already been experimenting for years to develop a weapon that could give the average soldier a fire rate of a machine gun.


  • But the accuracy of a rifle all of that would change with the prototypes of Mikhail Kalashnikov.


  • Kalashnikov spent most of his formative years in the harsh winters of Siberia.


  • It was probably here that he learned the value of being able to operate equipment in the most extreme environments in his early teens, in search of a better life and work outside of his native Siberia, Kalishnikov took over a 500 mile journey in search of work.


  • He finally found a job at a tractor factory and showed so much promising skill that he was allowed to work with the local Red Army unit to fit rifles into their stocks at the armory.


  • From here, he was drafted into the tank corps in 1938 and when Hitler invaded Russia, he found himself caught up in some of the largest battles of the war after barely escaping a battle with his life in the fall of 1941 Kalashnikov was recovering from his wounds in the hospital when he heard frequent complaints from fellow soldiers about the reliability and capability of their current infantry weapons.


  • Wanting to help answer their problems, he immediately set upon developing a reliable and accurate automatic weapon upon his discharge, Soviet authorities ultimately rejected his first design of a new submachine gun.


  • However, this project was not in vain, since he did gain their respect and admiration that someone with no formal education could create such an impressive prototype.


  • He was then given a job helping develop new small arms and ammunition for the Soviet military.


  • His first breakthrough came in 1944 when he designed the ammunition for the A K 47 762 by 39 millimeter cartridge.

    彼の最初のブレークスルーは、彼が39ミリメートルカートリッジでA K 47 762のための弾薬を設計した1944年に来た。

  • This cartridge was groundbreaking in that it had a low enough charge to not produce too much recoil, but had enough way to give it a fairly straight flight path and medium to long range.


  • The weight recoil are important since this would enable users to sustain accurate, fully automatic fire while also being able to carry large amounts of ammunition into battle.


  • Then, just after the end of World War 21 of the country's most famous weapon designers became ill.


  • Alexey Sadulayev had grown to national fame throughout the war by helping design a new submachine gun during the siege of Leningrad.


  • When surrounded by the Germans in starving conditions, the weapon is credited with greatly increasing the firepower of Soviet soldiers and helping to feed the Germans there.


  • This feat made him a national hero in the Soviet government, asked him to develop a full scale automatic rifle.


  • Sidibe's first designed, the S 44 was determined adequate but too heavy.

    シディベが最初に設計したS 44は、十分だが重すぎると判断された。

  • He was asked to make another design, but his illness caught up with him and he passed away in 1946.


  • Not wanting to stall weapons development after the loss of Russia's most celebrated gun designers, the Soviet authorities decided to hold a competition.


  • They solicited any and all interested in the army of gun designers currently employed by the government to submit their best proposals desire ing the incredible cash prize and prestige that would come with winning such a contest.


  • Kalashnikov decided to enter.


  • Contrary to popular belief, he was not working by himself, but instead had an entire design team behind him, including a woman who helped put his ideas into technically accurate sketches.


  • The team worked hard, and they faced fierce competition.


  • There were originally over 15 competitors, all vying to have their designs picked up.


  • Because there were so many interested, the competition was held in phases, with MAWR and more competitors being eliminated as their weapons went through a series of trials by the government, Thekla on test was held in secret and for good reason.


  • In many similar contests of the past, those who had more established names might have been more inclined to be selected in order to please stall it.


  • But Stalin only wanted the best product this time, so each of the competitors was given a pseudonym.


  • And the members of the commission judging the contest did not know who was producing the firearms throughout the competition.


  • One feature about Kalashnikovs design made it stand out from the rest.


  • It's loose tolerances.


  • Most weapons of the day were designed with what were called tight tolerances, meaning all the parts and pieces fit tightly together.


  • Kalashnikovs team did the opposite by purposefully designing a rifle with loose tolerances which allowed for foreign debris like mud, sand and water to enter the rifle, and it would still work.


  • This ruggedness and reliability would propel it to the final stage of the competition.


  • But before the final stage could begin in 1947 the three remaining designs for all required to go back to the drawing board toe, work out some of the kinks the commission had identified in each one, Kalashnikov was told the rifle was too heavy, so he shortened the barrel.


  • Significant On also made his most significant design change to date.

    Significant Onもまた、これまでで最も重要なデザイン変更を行いました。

  • He combined the bolt carrier in the gas piston into one unit.


  • By doing so, he eliminated the number of parts needed, which made manufacturing, repairing and cleaning much easier.


  • It was this rugged system, combined with the loose tolerances that would eventually cement the AK 40 sevens legendary reputation.

    それは、最終的にAK 40 sevensの伝説的な評判を固めるであろう緩い公差と組み合わせて、この頑丈なシステムでした。

  • Kalashnikov in his partners made three new models of their latest design, as the legend goes, When they took it to the final test and disassembled and reassembled it for the judges, his competitors respectfully bowed out of the competition, realizing that his design was so far superior to anything they had produced.


  • While this version of events is the subject of much debate and controversy as to if it actually happened or not.


  • What is certain is that Kalashnikovs design won the competition and was soon put into mass production for the Soviet Army by 1948.


  • Hence, the infamous a K 47 was born.


  • Despite all of its technological advances in superior design, that alone does not explain how the A K 47 became the world's most prolific and iconic assault rifle.

    優れたデザインの技術的進歩にもかかわらず、それだけでは、A K 47が世界で最も多産で象徴的なアサルトライフルになった理由は説明できません。

  • How the A K 47 got there was because of mix of politics and idealists as well as opportune timing during the Cold War, the Cold War was not just focused on building a bigger and better nuclear weapon.


  • Sure, these were more significant, as they could cause mutually assured annihilation on both sides.


  • But many simultaneous arms races were going on for conventional weapons as well.


  • Tanks, planes, missiles and even infantry small arms were all trying to one up each other.


  • The 47 fell right into the middle of this all by being able to be produced chiefly and rapidly.


  • In the late 19 forties and early 19 fifties, the Soviet Union was the standard bearer for communism in the world, as a result, they felt obligated to help out any fledgling communist insurgency or country they could by all means available.

    19 40年代後半と50年代前半には、ソ連は世界の共産主義の旗手であり、結果として、彼らは、彼らが利用可能なすべての手段を使用して可能性があります任意の駆け出しの共産主義の反乱や国を助ける義務を感じていました。

  • The idea was twofold.


  • Firstly, it provided much needed military aid at little cost and would ensure interoperability with Soviet troops in the future.


  • Since they used the same weapons and ammunition by supplying their own weapons to Communist states, the Soviet Union was also forcing them to continue to remain an ally, since they would have to rely on the Russians to provide a continual supply of ammunition, spare parts and replacement rifles.


  • The Soviets also had a political victory through the proliferation of the A K 47.


  • By much of the world using the rifle, especially the vulnerable Third World or unaligned countries, they could claim that Soviet engineering was superior to the West and they had beaten Western defense industries.


  • It also helped boost public opinion of the regime At home, the Soviet Union was not necessarily known for its high quality manufactured goods.


  • Often, most household and domestic goods were far inferior quality to those produced in the West.


  • By having a reliable arms industry that could claim victory over Western products, the home industrial base could gain much needed public confidence.


  • Despite Russia's desire to flood the world with as many a K 40 sevens as possible, they were optimistically cautious to continue improving the design to keep pace with Western developments.


  • During the first set of Army trials in 1948 some major changes were made, the ejector was redesigned, and the return spring was sticking to make it more durable.


  • Other smaller changes included re casting and changing the handle into a crescent shape.


  • The next biggest development in the A K 47 came in the form of its receiver.

    次に大きな展開となったのは、A K 47のレシーブという形で登場した。

  • The receiver is the main body of the rifle, where the trigger group, both assembly and magazine well are located.


  • Kalashnikovs original design was a stamped receiver.


  • That means a piece of sheet metal is stamped into a mold.


  • For a part, doing so drastically cuts down costs by reducing time and labor.


  • But when Soviet authorities started the mass produced the rifle, they realized that creating stamped receivers in large quantities is not possible at the time.


  • For Soviet technology to compromise, they had to redesign the A K 47 receiver with the classic but more expensive method of milling milling involves taking a solid block of steel and grinding it down into a receiver.

    ソ連の技術が妥協するために、彼らは古典的な、しかしフライス加工のより高価な方法でA K 47レシーバーを再設計しなければならなかったフライス加工は、固体の鋼のブロックを取り、それをレシーバーに粉砕する必要があります。

  • Milk receivers have much tighter tolerances than their stamped counterparts have will take much longer to produce, driving up costs and limiting production capacity.


  • It would take years for Soviet technology to finally adapts to producing a cost effective and efficient stamped receiver.


  • But in the meantime, the country had militaries tow arm into revolutions to ignite.


  • Probably the most substantial boost to the A K 47 production was the formation of the Warsaw Pact in 1955.

    おそらくA K 47の生産を最も大きく後押ししたのは、1955年のワルシャワ条約の成立であろう。

  • This eight country alliance, in response to the creation of NATO, dictated that any country attacked would elicit a response from the others.


  • The agreement also stated that these countries would fall under a unified command by a Russian general and would be supplied with the same arms and ammunition the A K 47.

    協定には、これらの国がロシアの将軍によって統一された指揮下に入り、A K 47と同じ武器と弾薬が供給されることも記載されています。

  • But the Soviet Union simply could not produce the number of weapons needed tow arm all these countries.


  • After all, the Russians at the time only operated to factories for their whole military.


  • As a result, each of these countries was granted licenses to produce their own local derivatives In time.


  • As these communist countries became hard up for cash, they turned to one of the few reliable and desirable export commodities.


  • They had weapons.


  • In short order, these countries started exporting arms just like the Russians were doing, and in almost no time at all.


  • The A K 47 was, and remains, to this day the most common rifle in the hands of soldiers, while the A K 47 would continue to get upgrades later in life, such as an ammunition change that became the A K 74 or smaller changes that became the A K M family.

    A K 47は、今日まで兵士の手に最も一般的なライフルであったが、A K 47は後年になっても、弾薬の変更がA K 74になったり、小さな変更がA K Mファミリーになったりと、アップグレードされ続けていた。

  • The principle of operation remained the same even with these later designs.


  • The original A K 47 makes up about 75 million of the current 100 K family style rifles in the world today, cementing its continued use for years to come.

    オリジナルのA K 47は、現在世界に存在する100Kファミリースタイルのライフルのうち約7500万丁を占めており、今後何年にもわたって使用され続けることを確固たるものとしています。

around the world today, there are few weapons as recognizable as the infamous a K 47.



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B1 中級 日本語 ソ連 ライフル 弾薬 武器 デザイン 設計

AK-47ライフルの進化 (Evolution of AK-47 Rifle)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2020 年 11 月 13 日