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  • Hi, welcome back to, I'm Adam.

    どうも。 にようこそ。アダムです。

  • Today's lesson, we're going to look at writing skills.


  • More specifically, we're going to look at transitions.


  • Now again, before I begin, let me tell you IELTS and TOEFL students out there: Transitions are very, very important for you, for the essay section of the test.

    始める前に、IELTS や TOEFL の勉強をしているあなたたちに念を押して言わせてください。「転換語」はあなたたちにとって、検定のエッセイセクションのために、とてもとても重要です。

  • Big points if you use them correctly, few points if you don't use them, or use them incorrectly.


  • Anyway, let's get into what transitions are, and look at a few specific ones.


  • What is a transition?


  • A transition means a change from one idea to another idea.

    転換とは、1 つのアイディアから次のアイディアに変わることを意味します。

  • Now, there are many transitions in English.


  • We use transitions to add information, we use transitions to show a contrast—"although," "however," etc.


  • We use transitions to show conditions—"if," "unless."


  • We use transitions to get to a conclusion, "therefore", "thus," okay.


  • Lots of transitions, very important, because they can join ideas within a sentence, but even more so, they can join two paragraphs.

    たくさんの転換語があり、とても重要です。なぜなら、転換語は複数のアイディアを 1 つの文章で繋げることができますし、さらには、2 つの段落を繋げることだってできるのです。

  • So what they do really, is they create flow.


  • Flow is very important for writing, okay.


  • Flow makes it easier for the reader to follow what you're saying, and it makes it a little bit more interesting, as well, okay.


  • So, to "transition" basically means to bridge.


  • You have two ideas you're connecting, you're creating a bridge from one idea to the next, okay.

    2つのアイディアがあって、それを繋げています。橋を 1 つのアイディアから次のアイディアの間に作っているんです。

  • Today, we're going to look specifically at "in addition", "in addition to", "furthermore", "moreover", and "another... something," okay.

    今日は特に「in addition」「in addition to」「furthermore」「moreover」、そして「another (何かの単語)」に注目してみましょう。

  • These are very, very important transitions, because they help you add ideas, one idea to another.

    これらはとても重要な転換語です。これらは 1 つのアイディアから、次のアイディアを追加することに役立つからです。

  • Again, very, very important for TOEFL and IELTS, because you're always going to be adding ideas to one topic.

    もう一度言いますが、TOEFL や IELTS にかなり重要です。常に 1 つのトピックに対し、複数のアイディアを追加していくことになりますから。

  • I'll get to that in a minute.


  • The most important thing to remember here, and where people I find make the most common mistakes.


  • And believe me—I have marked hundreds of essays for TOEFL and IELTS.

    信頼してください。私は何百という TOEFL と IELTS のエッセイを採点してきました。

  • Very, very common mistake.


  • And what people forget, this basically means "plus"—you're adding, you're adding two things.

    そして、よく忘れがちなもの。これはつまり「足すこと」を意味します。あなたは足しているのです。2 つの事柄をね。

  • And you're always adding... you're always adding at least one idea to another idea, so you will always have two ideas if you're using these transitions, okay.

    常に足しているのです。常に、少なくとも 1 つのアイディアにもう 1 つ他のアイディアを追加しているので、これらの転換語を使うときは、常に 2 つのアイディアがあるのです。

  • So one of the most common mistakes I have seen on these essays is that people use these words, but they only have one idea.

    つまり、私がこれらのエッセイで見てきたありがちなミスの 1 つは、これらの言葉を使っているのに、1 つのアイディアしかないということです。

  • So I'm the reader, and I'm reading, reading, reading, and I see, "Furthermore...".


  • I'm going, "furthermore what?


  • What are you adding to, what are you adding, at all?


  • Then I look around, and I only see one idea.

    そして、あちこちみて、1 つのアイディアしか見えない。

  • If I am the IELTS grader, and I'm reading your essay, you just lost at least one band because of that.

    もし私が IELTS の添削者でそんなエッセイを読んでいたら、あなたはそれが原因で、少なくとも 1 バンド失っただろう。

  • Why? Because you made me stop; you made me search for that second idea that is not there, okay.

    なぜって?それは、私を一度止まらせて、そこにはない 2 番目のアイディアを探させたからだ。

  • Be very careful about that.


  • If you're going to use these words there must be two ideas.

    もしこれらの言葉を使うなら、そこには必ず 2 つのアイディアが必要です。

  • They must be linked, they must have something similar between them, and they must be pretty close to each other, okay


  • "In addition to", "furthermore", and "moreover"—these are all pretty much the same.

    「In addition to(〜に加え)」、「furthermore(その上)」、そして「moreover(さらに)」。これらは、ほぼ同じです。

  • This one is probably the most formal, this one is next most, and this is the most common.


  • Now, if you're going to write a short essay, usually two of these will be enough.

    もし短いエッセイを書くなら、通常はこれらのうち 2 つを使えば十分です。

  • Why do you need to know how to use two?


  • Because you don't want to repeat.


  • You don't want to say "in addition", and give your idea, "in addition", give another idea, "in addition", give another idea.

    「in addition」と言ってあなたのアイディアを示し、それからまた「in addtion」、次のアイディア、「in addition」、次のアイディア...とはするべきではありません。

  • You don't want to do that.


  • You want vocabulary variety, so use at least two.

    あなたは語彙にバラエティが欲しいはずですから、少なくとも 2 つは使いましょう。

  • For a longer essay, you can use all three, or four as the case may be, okay.

    長いエッセイなら、これら 3 つ全てを使えます。もしくは、場合によっては 4 つ使えます。

  • What's interesting about these, you can use all of these mid-sentence or to join paragraphs, okay.


  • Very important that you use them correctly, though.


  • So let's look at some examples on how to use these.


  • Okay, so first we're going to look at a sentence with the transition working inside it, okay.


  • "His laziness caused the company to perform badly last quarter. Moreover, his attitude toward the board has put his job in jeopardy."


  • Okay, so first, let's look at what's going on herewhat are we talking about?


  • We're talking about the person's laziness.


  • What are we adding to this?


  • Remember, here I put "moreover."


  • I could put "furthermore". I can also put "in addition," but all three would be okay.

    「furthermore」を置くこともできました。それから「in addition」も使えますが、この 3 つ全てが大丈夫です。

  • We're talking about his lazinesswhat are we adding to it?


  • Look at the second sentence.

    2 番目の文章を見てください。

  • What are the two things we are adding together to get the two whole ideas?

    2つの全体のアイディアを理解するために、ここで足されている 2 つの物事はなんでしょう?

  • Okay, if you said attitude, you're correct.


  • Laziness and attitudethese are both qualities of this person.


  • His laziness and his attitude caused the company to do badly, and put his job in jeopardy.


  • I could rearrange these two sentences into one, but I don't want to.


  • I wanted to have this idea, because this is adding to this.


  • So, I have one idea, I have another idea, but they're very much connected, okay.

    なので、まず 1 つのアイディアがあり、もう 1 つ他のアイディアがある。しかしこれらはかなり繋がっている。わかりますか?

  • We used a word like this "moreover", "furthermore", "in addition," okay?

    だからこのような「moreover」「furthermore」「in additon」という言葉を使ったんですね。

  • All of these... all of these are about the same topic.


  • Now, when we talk about an essay, when we're joining paragraph to paragraph, you have to be very careful.


  • The last idea has to join to the first idea of the next paragraph using one of these transition words, okay.

    これらの転換語のうち 1 つを使って、最後のアイディアが次の段落の最初のアイディアに繋がっていなければならないのです。

  • Let's look at that now.


  • Okay, so now let's look at an essay, and you're joining two paragraphs, for example.

    では、例として、2 つの段落を繋げているエッセイを 1 つみてみましょう。

  • My topic here... general topic is the Internet.


  • What I want to say is that the Internet is a good thingvery, very generally.


  • I'm going to use two reasons.

    2 つの理由を使います。

  • I'm going to talk about two reasons, and I'm going to use basically one example.

    その 2 つの理由について話していきます。そして、基本的に 1 つの例を使います。

  • The reason it's good is because it helps connect families and friends.


  • This was my paragraph before, and this is the last sentence of my paragraph, my body paragraph.


  • "So"—conclusion—"the Internet not only helps connect your friends and family anywhere in the world, it also makes it cheap to do so, alright.


  • So that's one good thing about the internet: communication, networking, social media, etc. the Facebook... all that.

    つまり、インターネットについて 1 つの良いことは、コミュニケーション、ネットワーク、ソーシャルメディアなど。Facebook みたいな、そういうの全てね。

  • Now, I want to go to my next paragraph, and I want to add to this idea, the idea of connection, okay, the idea of communication, as why the Internet is a good thing, so...


  • "In addition to friends and family...", or "moreover/furthermore..."

    「In addition to friends and family(友達や家族に加えて)」、もしくは「moreover / furthermore」

  • "...the Internet provides companies with a larger network, or a larger pool of prospective employees."


  • So, I'm still talking about the same thingconnections, networksbut I went from "personal idea" to "business idea," but still within the topic of the internet, still for the reason of communication and networking.


  • I went with one idea, and the other idea working together for the overall idea, okay.

    1 つのアイディアを示し、そして他のアイディアがそれと一緒に全体的なアイディアを作ります。

  • I hope this makes sense to you, because it's a little bit complicated.


  • Any topic you take, any essay you write, where you're using one example, or two reasons with one example, to work together, to support an opinion about a general topic...

    どんなトピックを選んだとしても、どんなエッセイを書いたとしても、1 つの例を使ったり、1 つの例を元に2つの理由を述べたりして、それを一緒にはたらかせ、全体のトピックについての意見を支えたい場合・・・

  • can use these: "in addition to," "moreover," "furthermore."

    これらの言葉が使えます。「in addition to」「moreover」「furthermore」

  • Let's say you're taking the IELTS, the TOEFL tests, you're writing your essay.

    IELTS や TOEFL の受験中だと考えてみましょう。あなたはエッセイを書いています。

  • You're running out of time, you're not thinking properly, you're a little bit frazzled.


  • You need a transition wordalways use "another."


  • For example: "Another reason the Internet is good, is because it provides companies... " this is your go-to transition, okay.

    例えば、「インターネットが良いことの他の理由(another reason)は、企業に提供する...」これは、あなたにとって頼りになる転換語です。

  • When you're stuck, you have nothing else, you want to switch to the next idea, always use "another reason".

    もし詰まってしまって、他に何も思いつかず、次のアイディアに移り変わりたいなら、常に「another reason」を使いましょう。

  • But remember, this is not your first choice, this is your last choice.


  • These are your first choice when you want to add an idea, okay.


  • But, always good to have this in your back pocket, in case you get stuck, you pull it out.


  • Ace of spades, etcyou're a winner, right?


  • Lots of examples on , on the quizgo check it out.

    たくさんの例が の、クイズの中にあるので、チェックしてみてください。

  • Also, don't forget to subscribe to my channel on YouTube.

    また、私のチャンネルを YouTube で登録することも忘れずに。

  • And I will see you again soon for more lessons, thanks!


Hi, welcome back to, I'm Adam.

どうも。 にようこそ。アダムです。

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