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  • ♪♪

  • I'M LUKE TIPPLE, AND THIS IS YOUR "DAILY BITE."

  • SHARKS ARE LOOKING AND MORE LIKE GENETIC SUPERHEROES EVERY DAY.

  • NEW DISCOVERIES ARE BEGINNING TO REVEAL THE SECRETS

  • TO SHARKS' HEALING ABILITIES,

  • AND THEIR GENETIC CODE IS JUST THE BEGINNING.

  • ♪♪

  • SHARKS ARE ESSENTIALLY MODERN-DAY, LIVING FOSSILS,

  • AND STUDYING THEM CAN HELP UNLOCK

  • THE EVOLUTION OF MAMMALS LIKE US.

  • INSIDE SHARKS ARE TINY MOLECULES

  • THAT TELL THE STORY OF HOW OUR IMMUNE SYSTEMS HAVE DEVELOPED

  • AND CHANGED OVER THE CENTURIES.

  • ONE THING THAT SHARKS HAVE MANAGED TO KEEP UNDERCOVER

  • IS THEIR INCREDIBLE ABILITY TO FIGHT OFF DISEASE.

  • NOW, REMEMBER, THESE GUYS HAVE BEEN AROUND

  • FOR A LONG, LONG TIME, WAY LONGER THAN US HUMANS.

  • BUT EVEN THOUGH WE ARE MAMMALS,

  • WE SHARE MORE SIMILARITIES WITH SHARKS THAN YOU MAY THINK.

  • AND DISCOVERING THE SECRETS OF THEIR GENETIC CODE

  • COULD ENHANCE OUR ABILITY TO CURE HUMAN ILLNESSES.

  • SCIENTISTS HAVE BEEN STUDYING SHARKS' BLOOD

  • TO GET A CLOSER LOOK

  • AND MAP OUT THE STORY OF THEIR IMMUNE SYSTEMS.

  • THE RESEARCH IS STILL YOUNG,

  • BUT WE KNOW THAT SHARKS HAVE THREE SPECIAL ANTIBODIES.

  • TWO OF THOSE WE SORT OF SHARE WITH SHARKS,

  • BUT THE THIRD IS TOTALLY UNIQUE.

  • NOW, LIKE US, SHARKS USE THESE ANTIBODIES

  • TO CLEAR OUT PATHOGENS -- THOSE ARE THE BAD GUYS.

  • BUT UNLIKE US, THEY'RE ABLE TO DO IT AT SUPERPOWER SPEEDS,

  • SORT OF LIKE A CERTAIN COMIC-BOOK MUTANT.

  • BUT NOT ALL OF SHARKS' SECRETS ARE HIDDEN IN THEIR BLOOD

  • AND ANTIBODIES.

  • ♪♪

  • SCIENTISTS HAVE MAPPED OUT THE GREAT WHITE SHARKS' GENOME,

  • AND THEY'VE DISCOVERED THAT THEY'RE LOADED UP

  • WITH WHAT'S CALLED "JUMPING GENES."

  • THOSE ARE TINY GENETIC ELEMENTS THAT CAN HOP AROUND

  • WHEREVER THEY MIGHT BE NEEDED, INCLUDING REPAIRING DNA.

  • ♪♪

  • SO, SURE, THEY HAVE SOME AMAZING DISEASE-FIGHTING BLOOD,

  • BUT IT'S LITERALLY IN THEIR DNA.

  • AND GREAT WHITES ARE MODERN-DAY PROOF OF SHARKS'

  • 400 MILLION-YEAR-OLD GENETIC SUPERIORITY.

  • BUT SHARKS AREN'T COMPLETELY INVULNERABLE TO ILLNESS.

  • A BRAIN-EATING BACTERIA THAT'S COMMONLY FOUND IN FISH

  • HAS BEEN RECENTLY DISCOVERED TO AFFECT MULTIPLE SHARK SPECIES.

  • WE HAVE SHARK WEEK SCIENTIST MELISSA CRISTINA

  • RQUEZ HERE TO TELL US MORE.

  • HI. I'M MELISSA CRISTINARQUEZ.

  • AND I AM A SHARK SCIENTIST.

  • NOW, ONE BIG MYTH THAT SURROUNDS SHARKS

  • IS THAT THEY'RE NOT VULNERABLE TO DISEASES,

  • AND THAT'S JUST NOT TRUE.

  • SHARKS, LIKE US, DO GET SICK, THEY DO GET CANCER,

  • AND, ACTUALLY, MOST RECENTLY,

  • THEY GET A BACTERIA THAT EATS THEIR BRAIN

  • AND ESSENTIALLY MAKES THEM INTO ZOMBIE SHARKS.

  • SO, IT'S CALLED "CARNOBACTERIUM,"

  • AND IT'S A BACTERIA FOUND NATURALLY

  • IN THE STOMACHS OF TROUT AND SALMON.

  • AND IT DOESN'T AFFECT US, SO DON'T WORRY ABOUT IT.

  • BUT WHAT SCIENTISTS BELIEVE IS HAPPENING

  • IS THAT THESE SHARKS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY EATING

  • THESE ANIMALS ARE ACTUALLY INGESTING THIS BACTERIA

  • AND THEN PASSING IT TO ANY SHARKS THAT ARE IN UTERO,

  • SO, ESSENTIALLY, THESE SHARKS ARE BEING BORN

  • WITH THIS BRAIN-EATING DISEASE.

  • SO, WHAT HAPPENS IS, IS THAT THE BACTERIA CRAWLS

  • INTO AN ORIFICE OF THE SHARK

  • AND ESSENTIALLY STARTS MUNCHING AWAY AT THE SHARK'S BRAIN,

  • TURNING THEM INTO A ZOMBIE

  • BECAUSE THEY HAVE NO IDEA WHAT THEY'RE DOING WHATSOEVER.

  • AND IT CONTINUES BEACHING ITSELF UNTIL IT EVENTUALLY DIES.

  • AND IT'S NOT JUST ONE SPECIES OF SHARK --

  • YOU'VE GOT THIS HAPPENING IN MAKO SHARKS,

  • IN THRESHER SHARKS, AND EVEN BASKING SHARKS,

  • AND SOME OF THEM ARE ACTUALLY WASHING UP ONSHORE

  • IN CALIFORNIA.

  • SO, LIKE MANY THINGS IN SHARK SCIENCE,

  • WE DON'T HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS.

  • WE'RE STILL TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHAT'S GOING ON.

  • BUT THAT'S ONE REALLY COOL THING

  • THAT YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW ABOUT SHARKS IS THAT

  • THEY'RE JUST AS VULNERABLE AS WE ARE TO DISEASES,

  • BUT MAYBE NOT WITH SHARK-EATING, BRAIN-EATING BACTERIA,

  • SO DON'T WORRY ABOUT THAT.

  • SHARKS STILL CLEARLY HAVE A TON TO EACH US,

  • SO IT'S INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT THAT WE KEEP THEM AROUND.

  • THEY ARE EXCELLENT AT ADAPTING.

  • THE PROOF IS CERTAINLY OUT THERE --

  • 400 MILLION YEARS AND COUNTING.

  • AND HUMANS HAVE ONLY BEEN AROUND A FRACTION OF THAT TIME,

  • AND WE'VE MANAGED TO MAKE OURSELVES SHARKS' GREATEST ENEMY

  • WHEN WE OUGHT TO BE TREATING THEM

  • LIKE THE GREATEST ASSET TO OUR OWN SPECIES' SURVIVAL.

  • STICK WITH US ALL SHARK WEEK LONG AS WE CONTINUE

  • TO BRING THE MOST JAW-DROPPING DISCOVERIES IN SHARK.

  • IN THE NEXT EPISODE OF THE "DAILY BITE,"

  • WE'RE TALKING TO THE SHARK PAPARAZZI.

♪♪

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サメのスーパーパワー|シャークウィークのデイリーバイト (Shark Superpowers | Shark Week's The Daily Bite)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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