Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • At roughly 4pm on July 20, 1969,

  • mankind was just minutes away from landing on the surface of the moon.

  • But before the astronauts began their final descent,

  • an emergency alarm lit up.

  • Something was overloading the computer,

  • and threatened to abort the landing.

  • Back on Earth, Margaret Hamilton held her breath.

  • She'd led the team developing the pioneering in-flight software,

  • so she knew this mission had no room for error.

  • But the nature of this last-second emergency

  • would soon prove her software was working exactly as planned.

  • Born 33 years earlier in Paoli, Indiana, Hamilton had always been inquisitive.

  • In college, she studied mathematics and philosophy,

  • before taking a research position at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  • to pay for grad school.

  • Here, she encountered her first computer while developing software

  • to support research into the new field of chaos theory.

  • Next at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory,

  • Hamilton developed software for America’s first air defense system

  • to search for enemy aircraft.

  • But when she heard that renowned engineer Charles Draper

  • was looking for help sending mankind to the moon,

  • she immediately joined his team.

  • NASA looked to Draper and his group of over 400 engineers

  • to invent the first compact digital flight computer,

  • the Apollo Guidance Computer.

  • Using input from astronauts,

  • this device would be responsible for guiding, navigating

  • and controlling the spacecraft.

  • At a time when unreliable computers filled entire rooms,

  • the AGC needed to operate without any errors,

  • and fit in one cubic foot of space.

  • Draper divided the lab into two teams,

  • one for designing hardware and one for developing software.

  • Hamilton led the team that built the on-board flight software

  • for both the Command and Lunar Modules.

  • This work, for which she coined the termsoftware engineering,"

  • was incredibly high stakes.

  • Human lives were on the line, so every program had to be perfect.

  • Margaret’s software needed to quickly detect unexpected errors

  • and recover from them in real time.

  • But this kind of adaptable program was difficult to build,

  • since early software could only process jobs in a predetermined order.

  • To solve this problem,

  • Margaret designed her program to beasynchronous,”

  • meaning the software's more important jobs would interrupt less important ones.

  • Her team assigned every task a unique priority

  • to ensure that each job occurred in the correct order

  • and at the right timeregardless of any surprises.

  • After this breakthrough,

  • Margaret realized her software could help the astronauts work

  • in an asynchronous environment as well.

  • She designed Priority Displays

  • that would interrupt astronaut’s regularly scheduled tasks

  • to warn them of emergencies.

  • The astronaut could then communicate with Mission Control

  • to determine the best path forward.

  • This marked the first time flight software communicated directly

  • and asynchronouslywith a pilot.

  • It was these fail safes that triggered the alarms just before the lunar landing.

  • Buzz Aldrin quickly realized his mistake

  • he’d inadvertently flipped the rendezvous radar switch.

  • This radar would be essential on their journey home,

  • but here it was using up vital computational resources.

  • Fortunately, the Apollo Guidance Computer was well equipped to manage this.

  • During the overload, the software restart programs

  • allowed only the highest priority jobs to be processed

  • including the programs necessary for landing.

  • The Priority Displays gave the astronauts a choice

  • to land or not to land.

  • With minutes to spare, Mission Control gave the order.

  • The Apollo 11 landing was about the astronauts, Mission Control,

  • software and hardware all working together as an integrated system of systems.

  • Hamilton’s contributions were essential to the work of engineers and scientists

  • inspired by President John F. Kennedy’s goal to reach the Moon.

  • And her life-saving work went far beyond Apollo 11—

  • no bugs were ever found in the in-flight software for any crewed Apollo missions.

  • After her work on Apollo,

  • Hamilton founded a company that uses its unique universal systems language

  • to create breakthroughs for systems and software.

  • In 2003, NASA honored her achievements with the largest financial award

  • they’d ever given to an individual.

  • And 47 years after her software first guided astronauts to the moon,

  • Hamilton was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom

  • for changing the way we think about technology.

At roughly 4pm on July 20, 1969,

字幕と単語

ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

B2 中上級

一人の女性が月に男を置いた方法 - マットポーター&マーガレットハミルトン (How one woman put man on the moon - Matt Porter & Margaret Hamilton)

  • 53 2
    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語