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  • It’s no big secret that volcanoes can build new lands.

  • Let’s take the Hawaiian Islands for example.

  • They were a result of underwater volcanic eruptions that pumped out molten rock.

  • It reached the surface of the sea and formed landmasses.

  • But, did you know that the Earth isn’t the only body in our solar system with volcanoes?

  • With technological advancements, we were able to explore (from afar) parts of the universe

  • and discover volcanic activity on both planets and moons.

  • Granted, some of them have been inactive for millions of years.

  • But others are spewing all sorts of things into their atmospheres.

  • Most volcanic eruptions found on both moons and planets formed millions of years ago,

  • when our solar system was still a baby and all cosmic bodies had higher internal temperatures.

  • When we think of the termactive volcano”, we usually associate it with the ones on Earth

  • that are currently erupting.

  • It’s easy, because we can observe them closely.

  • Beyond our planet, the luxury of studying volcanic eruptions wasn’t available until

  • the invention of powerful telescopes.

  • Some were even transported closer to other planets and moons to get a better look.

  • The most direct way to get evidence of volcanic eruptions is to see or capture them in action.

  • The other way is to observe the body’s surfaces.

  • An outburst can cover the ground with debris, or it can cause a resurface.

  • Without such studies, it’s almost impossible to know if the volcanic activity is recent,

  • or millions of years old.

  • Volcanos, as we know them, are mostly mountainous openings in the Earth’s surface that emit

  • volcanic ash, lava, and gases.

  • Celestial bodies that are closer to the sun have a more solid composition and produce

  • silicate rock lavas, just like Earth.

  • However, planets and moons beyond Mars are filled with gas and silicate rocks.

  • These have cryovolcanoes.

  • Instead of hot molten rock; they spew cold liquid or frozen gasses such as ammonia, methane,

  • and water.

  • Based on studies, only 4 bodies of our solar system have been proven to have active volcanoes,

  • and only one of them is a planet.

  • The planet is the Earth.

  • The rest of them are moons.

  • We have TritonNeptune’s largest natural satellite.

  • Then there’s Enceladus, which is Saturn’s 6th largest moon.

  • And, the most troubling one: Io, which belongs to the Jupiter Gang.

  • It holds the title for the 4th largest moon in our solar system.

  • Let’s start with Ioc, which recently made some news.

  • Io managed to scare everyone by making them believe there was a black hole on Jupiter.

  • NASA’s Juno spacecraft snapped a series of detailed images of the planet back in 2012.

  • During the latest approach, which took place this year, it pictured a huge black spot on

  • the ringed planet.

  • At first, everyone was shocked.

  • But as it turned out, it was Io’s shadow being cast on the surface.

  • The spacecraft was approximately 5,000 miles away from the planet’s surface, but it just

  • so happened to capture an eclipse.

  • Due to Io’s distance from the sun, it’s hard to imagine that it has active volcanos.

  • But, because of its small volume, it’s influenced by the planet’s gravity.

  • This gravitational attraction causes powerful pulls which result in strong internal tides.

  • These are followed by inner friction; the moon heats up, and volcanic eruptions occur.

  • Io has hundreds of volcanic openings.

  • Some of them blast frozen vapor, lava, and so-called volcanic snow.

  • It was also hit by asteroids, just like other bodies in our solar system.

  • But the impact craters keep disappearing because of the eruptions.

  • The volcanic material spills onto the surface of the moon, covering and resurfacing different

  • parts.

  • That’s the evidence of volcanic activity.

  • In august of 2014, NASA showed some images of volcanic eruptions that occurred on Io

  • between the 15th and 29th of August in 2013.

  • They were gigantic eruptions, projecting hundreds of miles above the surface.

  • Oddly, only Earth and Io can spew hot lava in our solar system.

  • Now let’s get to the kingTriton.

  • This is the largest natural satellite of Neptune, and the first place where cryovolcanoes were

  • observed.

  • In 1977, space probe Voyager 2 detected a long cloud of smoke filled with nitrogen gas

  • and dust.

  • It erupted from the moon and traveled 5 miles up in the air.

  • These eruptions happened quite often, and Triton’s surface became soft.

  • Here’s how it goes: The cryovolcano eruptions fall back onto the surface, creating a soft

  • layer similar to snow.

  • Researchers believe that radiation from the sun goes through the surface of the moon and

  • heats up the underground layer.

  • Then, heat gets trapped and vaporizes the nitrogen that lies below the surface.

  • That results in the expansion of nitrogen, which then erupts through the icy layers.

  • The third active cryovolcano is onone of the natural satellites of Saturn.

  • In fact, this is the best documented active volcano.

  • The first activity recorded was in 2005, by the Cassini spacecraft.

  • It captured jets of icy particles coming out from the South Pole Region.

  • Cassini even managed to fly over the volcanic cloud and reported that it was composed of

  • water vapor, small amounts of methane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

  • There’s a theory that explains how those specific cryovolcanoes work.

  • Below the satellite’s surface, there are pockets of pressurized water.

  • It remains in liquid form because it’s warmed up from the interior.

  • Occasionally, the pressurized water comes to the surface and produces a cloud of water

  • vapor alongside icy particles.

  • Cryovolcanoes hadn’t been discovered until 2005, so an extensive search in our solar

  • system was limited.

  • While not yet proven, there’s a lot of evidence out there hinting at active volcanos elsewhere

  • in the solar system.

  • Take Venus, for example.

  • There’s a lot of action going on there!

  • It’s the hottest planet of the group.

  • It has over 1,600 large volcanoes, and 100,000 to 1 million smaller ones.

  • But what happens on Venus stays on Venus, hidden below it’s thick cloud clover, which

  • is mostly composed of sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide.

  • That’s a vacation spot!

  • There’s no air or water on the surface of the planetit just boils off.

  • Venus has an extreme greenhouse effect.

  • Therefore, it’s temperature can soar up to 880F.

  • However, it has many layers of different temperatures.

  • The atmospheric pressure slows down the winds.

  • This stops rain or airstreams from affecting its surface, which is why old volcanic eruptions

  • look relatively new.

  • The variety of explosions is limitedonly lava comes out, without volcanic ash or explosive

  • molten rock.

  • The tallest feature that resembles a volcano is the Maat Mons.

  • It’s 3 miles in height.

  • An orbiting probe, called Venus Express, recorded some spikes in temperatures that could indicate

  • lava flows.

  • However, it hasn’t been confirmed if it’s an active volcano.

  • In 2015, scientists working with NASA’s New Horizons mission collected high-resolution

  • data of one or two cryovolcanoes on the surface of Pluto.

  • Theyre 90 miles wide and 2.5 miles in height.

  • If scientists are correct, theyll be the largest cryovolcanoes outside of our solar

  • system.

  • For the time being, they were given the name Wright Mons to honor the Wright Brothers.

  • Another possible volcano was mentioned in a 2019 study.

  • Scientists from the European Space Agency, NASA, and the German Aerospace Center mightve

  • solved how the Ahuna Mons was formed.

  • This was a mysterious mountain that appeared on the surface of Ceresthe largest object

  • in our asteroid belt.

  • It’s believed to be a cryovolcano that gushes plumes of saltwater and mud onto its surface.

  • Ahuna Montata!

  • It’s means no worries, I mean no Lava.

  • Mars also had a few volcanic features in the Tharsis Montes region.

  • The largest one is the Olympus Mons.

  • The mountain was formed because of repeated volcanic eruptions on the planet.

  • This was, in fact, the biggest volcano in our solar system.

  • It stands 16 miles high and is 374 miles in diameter.

  • To put that into perspective, if you were to put Olympus Mons next to Mount Everest,

  • well Everest would seem like mole hill.

  • The gigantic highland is a slightly sloping shield volcano.

  • From the side, it resembles a warrior’s shield laying on the ground.

  • That’s how the name was inspired.

  • Speaking of inactive volcanoes, Mercury had a ton.

  • It’s now filled with craters, and as far as volcanic activity goes, nothing interesting

  • happens.

  • But, in the distant past, things were more exciting there.

  • There were huge stretches of landmasses that formed as a result of liquified rock spreading

  • across its surface.

  • When the planet began to cool down, those volcanoes went extinct.

  • A huge area of the Earth’s moon is also covered in ancient lava flows, but it’s

  • no longer volcanically active.

  • Those areas are calledMareswhich meansseasin Latin.

  • The somewhat darker-looking areas remained from previous magma streams that spread on

  • the surface before they cooled down.

  • Mare Tranquilitus (The Sea of tranquility) was where Apollo 11 first landed.

  • Lastly, we have the largest moon of SaturnTitan.

  • It’s the only identified moon with a dense atmosphere.

  • It’s also the only extra-terrestrial body with lakes, but it doesn’t contain water.

  • It’s made up of liquid hydrocarbons.

  • One of the famous mountains there is the Doom Mons.

  • However, there’s still some debate about whether it has active volcanoes.

  • If it does, they’d be cryovolcanoes.

  • Astronomers suspect that more volcanic activity will soon be discovered on the moons of icy

  • planets in our solar system.

  • These include Europa, Dione, Miranda and Ganymede.

  • Theyll likely be so excited with the discoveries, theyll beover the moon”.

  • Hey, if you learned something new today, then give the video a like and share it with a

  • friend!

  • And here are some other cool videos I think you'll enjoy.

  • Just click to the left or right and stay on the Bright Side of life!

It’s no big secret that volcanoes can build new lands.

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すべての惑星や月でさえも発見された火山! (Volcanoes Found on All the Planets and Even Moons!)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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