Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • (tapping)

  • - [Narrator] Hopefully you know this already but ...

  • that's a toothbrush.

  • So are these.

  • And the one thing they have in common:

  • they're all plastic.

  • But here's something you might not know.

  • This routine has been around for a millennia.

  • And back then, they used chewing sticks.

  • (sticks rattling)

  • Fast forward a bit to 1498, China.

  • They used a bamboo handle and some hog hair.

  • (snorting)

  • But here's the thing.

  • One estimate says one billion toothbrushes

  • are ending up here every year in the U.S.

  • And that sounds bad.

  • But we might be able to change that.

  • (upbeat music)

  • (gulls cawing)

  • Now, let's go meet a dentist.

  • (bouncy piano music)

  • - I'm Dr. Scott Swank, dentist.

  • I've been practicing for 30 years.

  • - [Narrator] But Scott isn't just any dentist.

  • - I'm currently the curator at the National Museum

  • of Dentistry in Baltimore, Maryland.

  • This is George Washington's lower denture.

  • And these are dental scalers fit for a queen.

  • These were actually owned by Queen Victoria.

  • This is the Swiss army knife of tooth extraction devices.

  • Brushing your teeth became important during the Civil War.

  • Men were being disqualified for service

  • because they didn't have two opposing back teeth,

  • and they needed those in order to tear open

  • paper rifle and musket cartridges.

  • (emphatic drumming)

  • - [Narrator] So, here's what that looks like.

  • - [Reenactor] Fire. (rifle firing)

  • - [Narrator] And that's pretty hard to do

  • if you don't have, um ...

  • teeth.

  • But here was the problem with that.

  • Toothbrushes hadn't really caught on yet in America.

  • By 1924, only about 20% of Americans brushed their teeth,

  • which is gross.

  • And then the Dupont Company introduced nylon.

  • to the American public in the late 1930s.

  • And, boom, the very first nylon bristle toothbrush.

  • Then came World War II.

  • - But most important of all, clean your teeth often.

  • Clean them well.

  • - [Narrator] And it was during the war that the Army

  • decided to give every soldier a toothbrush

  • and make it a mandatory part of their daily routine.

  • And that toothbrush design,

  • it hasn't really changed since.

  • (staccato electronic music)

  • This is Charlotte Fiell.

  • - F-I-E-L-L, and it's pronounced Fiell.

  • - [Narrator] She's a leading expert on design

  • and has written a lot of books,

  • including this one on the history of plastics.

  • - It was a fascinating journey,

  • because I didn't realize what a incredible history it had.

  • In the future, we have to use plastics more thoughtfully.

  • When you actually think about them,

  • they're incredibly noble, precious materials.

  • There's no reason why something that's made of plastic

  • can't last a lifetime.

  • (bright electronic music)

  • - [Narrator] The answer: three to four months,

  • at least according to the ADA.

  • So with 300 million Americans,

  • that's 1.2 billion toothbrushes

  • being thrown away just in America.

  • That's enough to warp around the world four times.

  • Now, let's look ahead.

  • - If you're a designer, you have an absolute duty

  • to design properly, especially,

  • especially if they're using plastics,

  • because plastics might be cheap materials,

  • but they actually have

  • a very high impact on the environment.

  • They're very expensive materials

  • when you actually think of them in a holistic way.

  • - [Narrator] Okay, so here are some options.

  • We could use alternative materials:

  • bone, metal, recycled plastic, or bamboo could work.

  • There are toothbrushes with replaceable heads,

  • and then there's pig hair, which biodegrades,

  • but it wouldn't be an option for vegans

  • and people with certain religious beliefs.

  • Lastly, chewing sticks created from the neem tree

  • are a totally plastic-free option.

  • But that would be a huge cultural shift.

  • Change takes time.

  • And because we've been using the same toothbrush design

  • for about 70 years, maybe that time is ...

  • now.

  • (blissful electronic music)

(tapping)

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

あなたの歯ブラシがプラスチック危機の一部になった経緯|ナショナルジオグラフィック (How Your Toothbrush Became a Part of the Plastic Crisis | National Geographic)

  • 18 1
    Courtney Shih に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語