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  • >>presenter: Good afternoon, everyone. Let's get started. It's an honor introducing, hosting

  • Khan Academy today, here at Google. We have three wonderful guests here. Sal, who's the

  • founder, and Shantanu, who is the President and COO, and Marcia, who is a software engineer

  • of Khan Academy. I learned about Khan Academy about a year ago. I wasn't sure how, just,

  • it also comes with a lot of comments, also like people appreciating. I wasn't sure just

  • how this video is going to be theoretical as far as personal education is concerned.

  • So I tried it myself and I guess the first thing that I noticed was that it almost seems

  • that he was having more fun teaching me than I was having fun listening to him. [audience

  • laughter] He is so passionate about teaching. And I intentionally chose a non-technical

  • topic, which I always hated, like history. And I watched through all the videos and it

  • was just like glass and ice. At a very certain level, I realized why it works. With that,

  • I will actually give it to Chris Uhlik. He will formally introduce Sal. He has been working

  • with Khan Academy over the past year and he has actually helped them get a $50,000 grant

  • from Microsoft Research and he also helped them get two million dollars from Google,

  • as part of the 10 to the 100th Project. So, with that, I'll give it to Chris.

  • [applause]

  • >>Chris Uhlik: Hey, so, I have four children, ages eight through fifteen, and we homeschool

  • them. My wife is very interested in education technology. She has a degree in education

  • technology and it's illegal to experiment on humans, so she made her own.

  • [laughter]

  • And we've been basically educating our kids using 100 percent online materials. Every

  • kid's got a computer; they spend all day at the computers and then they go off to physical

  • education classes outside the home and stuff like that. So, she's a great student of what

  • kind of education technologies are out there in the world. We buy everything; she researches

  • everything well. Just over two years ago, she sent me a link to this Khan Academy. She

  • said, "Hey, check this out. This one's pretty cool and itís free." And I started watching

  • a few videos. I watched the banking crisis explanation videos. And I was like, "This

  • stuff is really, really good." And I had been thinking about what are a few of the really

  • big, high impact projects we can do in the world, like fixing carbon dioxide emissions,

  • educating the people in the world. These are some of the huge problems where you can really

  • totally transform the future. And I firmly believe that doing this for free, so that

  • everybody in the world has access to education materials, by taking advantage of the leverage

  • that technology offers, the ability to take one lecture given by one guy and then have

  • a 100,000 people watch it over the next few months. And Sal's done 18 hundred little capsule

  • lectures and they have a typical number of views--around a hundred thousand each--40

  • thousand here, a million there, give or take. So, he's reaching, right now, about two million

  • people a day.

  • >>Salman Khan: A month, unique a month.

  • >>Chris: Unique a month. The University of California has .2 million, right? So, he's

  • reaching ten times the University of California with his own efforts, a few people helping

  • him, and a free video hosting service, right? So that's the power of technologies like YouTube

  • and AppEngine to let people build incredibly impactful, valuable things for free. So, a

  • year ago, I was working on this education project. It wasn't Microsoft Research that

  • gave him the 50K, by the way. It was Google Research.

  • [laughter]

  • And I also helped the Google 10 to the 100 team decide and figure out how to give them

  • one fifth of the total prize, which is two million dollars. And I think he's gotten some

  • significant backing from the Gates Foundation and from John and Ann Doerr, and a few others.

  • So, he's able now to really commit full-time and actually hire people and expand and he's

  • getting some serious publicity help. That publicity has caused him to grow a factor

  • of 50 in the past year. He was getting something like, 40,000 views a month a year ago; he's

  • getting two million a month right now. And that's just incredible and it's probably going

  • to continue accelerating at that kind of pace for a while. You can look forward to most

  • people on the planet having seen a Khan Academy video in the next couple of years. That's

  • impact. So, we're gonna start the talk. There's a Dory page at go/khanacademy. There's gonna

  • be a lot of kind of question and answer period at the end. There's a microphone in the middle.

  • Go up and ask your questions at the end. Don't interject and I'd like to introduce the Linus

  • Torvalds of education.

  • >> Salman Khan: [laughs]

  • [audience laughter]

  • He's gonna transform the operating system of the education future. Salman Khan.

  • [laughter]

  • >>Salman Khan: Thank you, thank you.

  • [applause]

  • Actually ñ I don't want to be -- how many of you all saw the Ted talk that came out

  • a week or so ago? Ok, I don't wanna bore y'all, but some of y'all haven't seen it, but there

  • will be a little bit of an overlap. And since you don't know the structure of this, I'm

  • gonna do a quick overview and feel free to interrupt me at any time, or ask a question.

  • And then we'll just open up to Q&A cause that'll be more fun. We'll learn things. But just

  • to start off, as Chris mentioned, Khan Academy started off me making videos. So, I'll show

  • all a little bit of a video montage to see a feel for what the videos are like, and

  • we'll show you what else we're up to.

  • [pause]

  • [video plays]

  • >>Salman Khan:(speaking on video) So, the hypotenuse is going to be five. This animal's

  • fossils are only found in this area of South America; nice, clean band here and this part

  • of Africa. We can integrate over the surface, and the notation usually is a capitol sigma.

  • National Assembly that create The Committee of Public Safety, which sounds like a very

  • nice committee. Notice, this is an aldehyde and it's an alcohol. Start differentiating

  • into effector and memory cells. A galaxy. Hey, there's another galaxy. Oh, look, there's

  • another galaxy. And for dollars is their 30 million plus the 20 million dollars from the

  • American manufacturer. If this does not blow your mind, then you have no emotion.

  • [laughter]

  • [end video clip]

  • >>Salman Khan: So, that's a feel for what we're doing. And as Chris mentioned, we are

  • now -- there's now on the order of 2200 videos. I made five this morning. And they're--

  • [laughter]

  • ten minutes, you know. And they now cover everything from basic arithmetic all the way

  • to vector calculus and the French Revolution, and all the rest. And we're reaching -- actually

  • a month ago, we were reaching a million unique students a month. Now, weíre reaching two

  • million unique students a month just with the latest buzz. So that's kind of where we

  • are now, but there's a lot more that we're up to. Yíall have very generously given us

  • two million dollars, so I view this as a progress report.

  • [laughter]

  • But before I go into that, I'll talk a little bit about how I got started. And asall

  • know, I was a hedge fund analyst five years ago in Boston. Then, we moved the firm out

  • here in Northern California. It was actually a two-person hedge fund and my boss -- his

  • wife became a professor at Stanford, so he moved to Palo Alto. And I was tutoring my

  • cousins remotely in New Orleans and started working with one cousin, then another cousin,

  • then another cousin. Before I knew it, I had this cohort of cousins all over the country

  • and I was looking for a way to scale myself up. And one of my buddies [Sulfaka Ramzana]--I

  • should give him credit--I was literally hanging out at his house, showing him how I was tutoring

  • my cousins and all that, and he's like, "You know, why don't you put some of your lectures

  • on YouTube?" And I said, "Oh, that's silly. YouTube's for dogs on skateboards. It's not

  • for--

  • [laughter]

  • It's not for a serious learning. But once I got over the idea that it wasn't my idea,

  • I--

  • [laughter]

  • said, "I'll take a shot at it." And I remember the first video, I think, and you can go there,

  • literally, it's like November 6th, 2006. It was greatest common divisor, least common

  • divisor. One of those. I wanted to teach my cousins fractions. I was like, "Oh what do

  • they have to know? And the negative numbers." And I put in like, 20 or 30 videos and this

  • has turned into a bit of a one-liner, but it's true. The very first feedback my cousins

  • gave me were that they preferred me on YouTube than in person. And so, I felt like this was

  • something to do. So I kept making the videos. I started getting feedback from people all

  • over the country, saying how it helped them. "Hey, this helped me on my exam. I passed

  • the exam." But some of them were like, "Hey, I was gonna drop out of high school until

  • these videos". Or "This motivates me to go to college and become an engineer." Or "This

  • is the only reason why I can, now that I'm retiring from the military, I can feel comfortable

  • going back to the community college." So, I was excited. So I kept going. And along

  • the way, the site grew and then the other thing that happened--actually this is what

  • most people don't realize-- sometimes, I switch around the story because it sounds better

  • when I started the videos. But I actually started on the software side. If you rewind

  • before I even wrote that first piece ñ I recorded that first video, when I was tutoring

  • my cousins, I would just point them to random websites. I was like, "Hey, I just found some

  • website run by this university and there's ten good problems on fractions. Why don't

  • you do those problems and we'll go over them tomorrow?" And the next day, I'd say, "Hey,

  • now you do the problems?" She'd be like, "Yeah, yeah, I did them." I was like, "How many did

  • you get right?" She said, "Yeah, I think I got them all right." I was like, "Oh, when

  • did you do the problems?" "Oh, yeah, I did 'em like at night."

  • [laughter]

  • It wasn't that ñ it wasn't that informative. So I was like, "Oh, I'm gonna write my own

  • problems." And then she would run out of problems. There's these little worksheets that you see

  • all over the web, like ten problems and then you're done. So I wrote these really primitive

  • JavaScript generate problems, as many as you want, in adding fractions, or adding negative

  • numbers, or multiplying fractions, or whatever. And so that was -- the premise was, "I'll

  • give you as many problems as you need until you get ten in a row" and I'll show you what

  • they look like in a second, "and you'll get hints for them." And before I even made the

  • first video, I thought that was the solution. That was like, "this is all someone needs

  • to do math." Because on the exercises you have hints and all of that. But then, once

  • the videos took off, it was just a better use of my time to make five videos a day rather

  • than one module every five days. So, that kind of ñ it got orphaned a little bit. And

  • actually, one thing that happened is, I left it out there and I had this 50 dollar a month

  • webhosting and at some point, there were too many people using that software, so I just

  • turned it off -- which is probably a bad idea if you're ever starting a business. [laughter]

  • It's probably a signal that you shouldn't. Maybe spend a hundred dollars on your webhosting.

  • So when the opportunity -- once Khan Academy started growing, we had this viewership and

  • it seemed like there was an organization that we could start here. The question was like,

  • "How do you take what we're doing to the next level?" And that's what ñ [pause] And that's

  • what I wanna show you right here. So, these are the exercises and what I started with

  • my cousin was a much more primitive version, but this is the same, actually some of the

  • same basic code. It's been fancied up a good bit now. But the general principle is, it'll

  • give you as many--this is subtraction one--it'll give you as many problems as you need until

  • you get ten in a row. And it's a very simple--it got cut off here-- but you can have the videos

  • here, there's hints, you can see it draws a number line for you. The Khan Academy videos

  • can be pumped in, and itís a very simple idea; you do it until you get ten in a row,

  • but itís--at least in our minds--completely different than what happens right now in a

  • traditional school. In a traditional school, lecture, homework, lecture, homework, lecture,

  • homework, lecture, homework, then snapshot exam. And regardless of whether you get 80

  • percent, 90 percent, or 95 percent, the whole class moves on. Even if you fail an exam,

  • actually, the whole class will move to the next topic and what was that five, twenty,

  • or thirty percent you didn't know? It was probably something that you actually probably

  • need for the next topic, or definitely something you'll need in a few years. And there's no

  • -- people just ignore it. They place a label on your head; that some kind of value judgment

  • on whether you're smart or not and then everyone just proceeds down with those gaps. And so,

  • what we're saying is, "No, we're gonna have them do the opposite." Instead on penalizing

  • you for failure and not expecting mastery, we wanna do the opposite. We wanna allow you

  • to experiment. If you're learning ñ if you're learning to ride a bicycle, you would just

  • sit on that bicycle as long as it takes to actually learn how to ride the bicycle. And

  • so, that's what we wanna do here. We wanna allow you to experiment, we wanna allow you

  • to fail, but you're not going to move on to more advanced topics until you actually, until

  • you actually master the topic. So this is -- that is the subtraction one module. This,

  • right here, is trigonometry. [pause] This, right here, is shifting and reflecting functions.

  • And then this is how all of the exercises are structured. So literally, this node right

  • up there is single-digit addition. It's literally five plus seven, or one plus one. And once

  • you get ten in a row there, it'll move you up to one digit and a double digit addition,

  • and then single digit subtraction and then we call it very basic multiplication. Once

  • you get ten in a row there, it keeps moving you down what we call this "knowledge map"

  • and if you keep going down the knowledge map, you start getting into some more advanced

  • arithmetic; some pre-algebra here. Go further down and it starts getting into algebra, a

  • little bit of trigonometry, geometry, and precalculus. And so, the general idea is that

  • we want this graph to eventually cover everything. Actually, the funding thatall have given

  • us, roughly half the funding is to translate the videos into ten languages, but the other

  • half of the funding is to build out this graph structure to cover on the order of about two

  • hundred or three hundred modules. So, literally is all of K through calculus mathematics.

  • But the goal, and it's already pretty good coverage for K through nine, or K through

  • ten mathematics, but the goal is right now, it's about 107 modules. The K through calculus

  • is probably gonna be on the order of about 300 modules; totally very comprehensive. But

  • there's no reason why you can't expand from this into logic, into computer programming,

  • into genetics, into probability, into finance, into accounting, into grammar and logic. You

  • can just keep building off of this knowledge map, so it really covers everything that can

  • be quizzed in this type of a form factor. [pause] And so, this is just some more of

  • it right over here. And so the paradigm that we're doing -- when I started this, I assumed

  • it would be a kind of a nice to have -- a supplement for people. Even when we started,

  • when we formally became an organization, we didn't assume that it would be adopted in

  • schools. But then, one thing that happened was that teachers started adopting it on their

  • own; just the videos. We started getting letters from teachers saying, "Hey, you've already

  • given the lecture, so we're using those to flip the classroom. So instead of me giving

  • the lecture ñ me the teacher -- , I'm assigning your lectures as homework. And then what used

  • to be homework, I'm having the students do in the class." And it's a very simple concept,

  • but it really changes what a class is all about then. Now, all of a sudden, instead

  • of you literally have 30 people completely silent and completely passive, most of them

  • zoned out, a teacher having to give this one size fits all lecture, even a great teacher,

  • they're losing probably two-thirds of the class, now that happens at home. You don't

  • have to be embarrassed to rewind and look at something that you might have missed, or

  • fast-forward if you're bored, or pause something ten times; you don't have to interrupt the

  • whole class. And now, when you actually go to class, you actually have all of your peers,

  • you actually have the teacher to actually help you out. And it's interesting. One thing,

  • and I had mentioned this is in the Ted Talk, "that'll work for motivated students, but

  • what about the students who aren't going to do that?" And I was like, "Well, if you're

  • not gonna do anything at home, period, it's still better that you're doing the exercises

  • in the classroom, because that's, frankly, where you're gonna get most of the learning

  • in and if you didn't do it, watch the video in the classroom, too. And so the paradigm

  • is, where you really learn stuff and where you're really getting your head around something,

  • you want other people to be around you. When you're actually trying to solve the problem.

  • But when you're trying to listen to a lecture, you don't want people around you. You don't

  • want your peer to say, "Oh my God, look how stupid Sal is. I didn't have to pause that.

  • He's reviewing stuff from 30 -- " You don't want that around. So you want the lecture

  • to be intimate, but you want the actual classroom experience to be social. So what we're doing

  • in classrooms now is taking that to the next level. Los Altos, right here, they came to

  • us, they came to us actually about four months ago. Shantanu and myself, we had a meeting

  • with their school board and said, "If you just had carte blanche in a classroom, how

  • would you run the classroom?" And we said, "Well, we would let every student work at

  • their own pace on those exercises on that