字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント - [Narrator] These three substances have a lot of things in common. - It looks like a bunch of talcum powder. - Somebody were to grate drywall. - It has the appearance of flour, but it's odd. - [Narrator] But, they've had one very specific use in Hollywood. At some point or the other they all start as snow in the pictures, but snow making in film isn't just one thing. It's more involved and if you're anything like me you might be surprised at how much thought and effort goes into your holiday movie snow. (gentle Christmas music) If you ever wanted to make a Christmas movie, in Netflix case, if you ever wanted to make like four Christmas movies, there's one ingredient that you absolutely need to have, snow. Snow in flurries and swalls and snow banks. And, this need for artful accurate big screen snow has been so intense that film makers throughout history experimented with everything and we mean everything. There were mounds of salt and flour in Charlie Chaplin's "The Gold Rush." Painted cornflakes which were used in John Ford's "Airmail" and which are so noisy that you have to re-dub the actors later. And marble dust, which gave Dr. Zhivago its sad pristine permacrust beauty. And infamously, there was asbestos. That right there was these flakes on Dorothy's face after good witch's snow spell is actually asbestos, which unfortunately, wasn't yet known to be a carcinogen. In fact, it was even packaged and sold as artificial snow in the 1940s. Of course, we've moved beyond using absurdly dangerous materials, but the search for the perfect snow effect continues and we don't always think about it as what it is, a special effect, but films like "It's A Wonderful Life" won Academy Awards specifically for their revolutionary snow making technique. Everyone I talked to for this piece agreed making snow is still difficult, in part because every snow scene is different. So, film makers have to do and redo a kind of snow calculus each time. Appearance, availability, affordability, continuity, sustainability all matter. A lot of snow scene preps starts like this with the producers making a huge choice filming it on location versus filming it in studio. The benefit of filming on location is of course, that real snow looks and acts like snow should, but it's also unpredictable, fleeting and as every New Yorker can tell you, it gets disgusting after like three hours. The crew of "Let It Snow" for instance, drove around snow chasing for days until they lucked into finding suitable spots like this. And even when there is some real snow or when the producers decide to film in a studio, something extra is often needed to fill a gap or augment what's on the ground. In fact, even when there's enough real stuff on the ground, sometimes warm, artificial snow is piled on top of cold real snow for the comfort of the actors. Artificial snow almost certainly means a call to Snow Business, whose mail I just got. A snow effects consultancy who works on at least a dozen huge films per year, plus TV and commercials, along with the film's production designer, they choose the snow substitute or on average eight to 12 snow substitutes, from their 200 variety strong arsenal that best evokes a snow look or a mood without of course, eluding the location. Paper snow is commonly in the mix. It's made in huge machines which tear and shred the edges to get it to clump and drift like real snow because if you cut it it just acts like confetti. It's then sprayed at high pressure, combined with a fine mist of water to make it stick onto the set. Paper snow is a good solution for big spaces and it interacts well with the actors, but it can't be used in a studio where fire becomes a concern. - No. - [Narrator] There's also plastics, cellulose, foam, shaved ice, snow blanket, snow membranes, they all have their pluses and minuses. So, there's no one magic snow bullet for dressing snow, industry talk for snow on the ground. There is however, a bit more of a clear winner for falling snow. 90% of it is evaporative foam shot out of a blower. The machinery can be loud, but pretty. But, we're not quite done because this is Hollywood in 2019 and of course, visual effects plays a huge role. You might not guess it, but holiday movies like "Let It Snow" have around 500 visual effect shots that either supplement or actually supplant it's practical effects. Snow of course, changes when actors or nature interacts with it, so the visual effects team often serves as a guardian of continuity, fixing footsteps or compensating for changing winds. They also fill in, quite literally in some cases, by using giant mat paintings to cover areas too big to fill with artificial snow. But, also figuratively when practical effects are impractical. The falling snow in the window here was done by the visual effects team because the blower proved itself too loud. But, with increased number of shots and shot complexity visual effects get really expensive. It too is no magic snow bullet and probably nothing ever will be. Maybe instead of a magic snow bullet film makers will have to settle for a magical snow ball, a big bundle of little techniques that joyfully lob at our holiday movies to make them wintry wonderlands. But, enough from me. Who better to get you excited about snow than Miss Joan Cusack? - [Joan] See, didn't I tell you? Snow can make a difference, especially on Christmas Eve. - [Narrator] The question that Snow Business gets the most often, their biggest job. It turns out it's Kenneth Branagh's "Hamlet." In order to turn England into Denmark, Snow Business covered, wait for it, 156 acres of land with artificial snow. To freeze or not to freeze. That is the question.