Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Before I get started:

  • I'm really excited to be here

  • to just actually watch what's going to happen, from here.

  • So with that said, we're going to start with:

  • What is one of our greatest needs,

  • one of our greatest needs for our brain?

  • And instead of telling you, I want to show you.

  • In fact, I want you to feel it.

  • There's a lot I want you to feel in the next 14 minutes.

  • So, if we could all stand up.

  • We're all going to conduct a piece of Strauss together.

  • Alright? And you all know it.

  • Alright. Are you ready?

  • Audience: Yeah!

  • Beau Lotto: Alright. Ready, one, two, three!

  • It's just the end.

  • (Music: Richard Strauss "Also Sprach Zarathustra")

  • Right?

  • You know where it's going.

  • (Music)

  • Oh, it's coming!

  • (Music stops abruptly)

  • Oh!

  • (Laughter)

  • Right?

  • Collective coitus interruptus.

  • OK, you can all sit down.

  • (Laughter)

  • We have a fundamental need for closure.

  • (Laughter)

  • We love closure.

  • (Applause)

  • I was told the story that Mozart, just before he'd go to bed,

  • he'd go to the piano and go,

  • "da-da-da-da-da."

  • His father, who was already in bed, would think, "Argh."

  • He'd have to get up and hit the final note to the chord

  • before he could go back to sleep.

  • (Laughter)

  • So the need for closure leads us to thinking about:

  • What is our greatest fear?

  • Think -- what is our greatest fear growing up, even now?

  • And it's the fear of the dark.

  • We hate uncertainty.

  • We hate to not know.

  • We hate it.

  • Think about horror films.

  • Horror films are always shot in the dark,

  • in the forest,

  • at night,

  • in the depths of the sea,

  • the blackness of space.

  • And the reason is because dying was easy during evolution.

  • If you weren't sure that was a predator,

  • it was too late.

  • Your brain evolved to predict.

  • And if you couldn't predict, you died.

  • And the way your brain predicts is by encoding the bias and assumptions

  • that were useful in the past.

  • But those assumptions just don't stay inside your brain.

  • You project them out into the world.

  • There is no bird there.

  • You're projecting the meaning onto the screen.

  • Everything I'm saying to you right now is literally meaningless.

  • (Laughter)

  • You're creating the meaning and projecting it onto me.

  • And what's true for objects is true for other people.

  • While you can measure their "what" and their "when,"

  • you can never measure their "why."

  • So we color other people.

  • We project a meaning onto them based on our biases and our experience.

  • Which is why the best of design is almost always about decreasing uncertainty.

  • So when we step into uncertainty,

  • our bodies respond physiologically and mentally.

  • Your immune system will start deteriorating.

  • Your brain cells wither and even die.

  • Your creativity and intelligence decrease.

  • We often go from fear to anger, almost too often.

  • Why? Because fear is a state of certainty.

  • You become morally judgmental.

  • You become an extreme version of yourself.

  • If you're a conservative, you become more conservative.

  • If you're a liberal, you become more liberal.

  • Because you go to a place of familiarity.

  • The problem is that the world changes.

  • And we have to adapt or die.

  • And if you want to shift from A to B,

  • the first step is not B.

  • The first step is to go from A to not A --

  • to let go of your bias and assumptions;

  • to step into the very place that our brain evolved to avoid;

  • to step into the place of the unknown.

  • But it's so essential that we go to this place

  • that our brain gave us a solution.

  • Evolution gave us a solution.

  • And it's possibly one of the most profound perceptual experiences.

  • And it's the experience of awe.

  • (Music)

  • (Applause)

  • (Music)

  • (Applause)

  • (Music)

  • (Applause)

  • (Music)

  • (Applause)

  • (Cheers)

  • (Applause)

  • Beau Lotto: Ah, how wonderful, right?

  • So right now, you're probably all feeling, at some level or another, awe.

  • Right?

  • So what's happening inside your brain right now?

  • And for thousands of years,

  • we've been thinking and writing and experiencing awe,

  • and we know so little about it.

  • And so to try to understand what is it and what does it do,

  • my Lab of Misfits had just the wonderful opportunity and the pleasure

  • to work with who are some of the greatest creators of awe that we know:

  • the writers, the creators, the directors, the accountants,

  • the people who are Cirque Du Soleil.

  • And so we went to Las Vegas,

  • and we recorded the brain activity of people

  • while they're watching the performance,

  • over 10 performances of "O,"

  • which is iconic Cirque performance.

  • And we also measured the behavior before the performance,

  • as well as a different group after the performance.

  • And so we had over 200 people involved.

  • So what is awe?

  • What is happening inside your brain right now?

  • It's a brain state. OK?

  • The front part of your brain, the prefrontal cortex,

  • which is responsible for your executive function,

  • your attentional control,

  • is now being downregulated.

  • The part of your brain called the DMN, default mode network,

  • which is the interaction between multiple areas in your brain,

  • which is active during, sort of, ideation,

  • creative thinking in terms of divergent thinking and daydreaming,

  • is now being upregulated.

  • And right about now,

  • the activity in your prefrontal cortex is changing.

  • It's becoming asymmetrical in its activity,

  • biased towards the right,

  • which is highly correlated when people step forward into the world,

  • as opposed to step back.

  • In fact, the activity across the brains of all these people was so correlated

  • that we're able to train an artificial neural network

  • to predict whether or not people are experiencing awe

  • to an accuracy of 75 percent on average,

  • with a maximum of 83 percent.

  • So what does this brain state do?

  • Well, others have demonstrated,

  • for instance, Professors Haidt and Keltner,

  • have told us that people feel small but connected to the world.

  • And their prosocial behavior increases,

  • because they feel an increased affinity towards others.

  • And we've also shown in this study

  • that people have less need for cognitive control.

  • They're more comfortable with uncertainty without having closure.

  • And their appetite for risk also increases.

  • They actually seek risk, and they are better able at taking it.

  • And something that was really quite profound

  • is that when we asked people,

  • "Are you someone who has a propensity to experience awe?"

  • They were more likely to give a positive response

  • after the performance than they were [before].

  • They literally redefined themselves and their history.

  • So, awe is possibly the perception that is bigger than us.

  • And in the words of Joseph Campbell,

  • "Awe is what enables us to move forward."

  • Or in the words of a dear friend,

  • probably one of our greatest photographers,

  • still living photographers, Duane Michaels,

  • he said to me just the other day

  • that maybe it gives us the curiosity to overcome our cowardice.

  • So who cares? Why should we care?

  • Well, consider conflict,

  • which seems to be so omnipresent in our society at the moment.

  • If you and I are in conflict,

  • it's as if we're at the opposite ends of the same line.

  • And my aim is to prove that you're wrong and to shift you towards me.

  • The problem is, you are doing exactly the same.

  • You're trying to prove that I'm wrong and shift me towards you.

  • Notice that conflict is the setup to win but not learn.

  • Your brain only learns if we move.

  • Life is movement.

  • So, what if we could use awe, not to get rid of conflict --

  • conflict is essential, conflict is how your brain expands,

  • it's how your brain learns --

  • but rather, to enter conflict in a different way?

  • And what if awe could enable us to enter it

  • in at least two different ways?

  • One, to give us the humility and courage to not know.

  • Right? To enter conflict with a question instead of an answer.

  • What would happen then?

  • To enter the conflict with uncertainty instead of certainty.

  • And the second is, in entering conflict that way,

  • to seek to understand, rather than convince.

  • Because everyone makes sense to themselves, right?

  • And to understand another person,

  • is to understand the biases and assumptions

  • that give rise to their behavior.

  • And we've actually initiated a pilot study

  • to look to see whether we could use art-induced awe

  • to facilitate toleration.

  • And the results are actually incredibly positive.

  • We can mitigate against anger and hate

  • through the experience of awe generated by art.

  • So where can we find awe,

  • given how important it is?

  • So, what if ...

  • A suggestion:

  • that awe is not just to be found in the grandeur.

  • Awe is essential.

  • Often, it's scale -- the mountains, the sunscape.

  • But what if we could actually rescale ourselves

  • and find the impossible in the simple?

  • And if this is true,

  • and our data are right,

  • then endeavors like science,

  • adventure, art, ideas, love,

  • a TED conference, performance,

  • are not only inspired by awe,

  • but could actually be our ladders into uncertainty

  • to help us expand.

  • Thank you very much.

  • (Applause)

  • Please, come up.

  • (Applause)

  • (Cheers)

  • (Applause)

Before I get started:

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

TED】ボー・ロットとシルク・ドゥ・ソレイユ:私たちは畏敬の念をどのように体験するのか--そしてなぜそれが重要なのか(畏敬の念をどのように体験するのか--そしてなぜそれが重要なのか|ボー・ロットとシルク・ドゥ・ソレイユ (【TED】Beau Lotto and Cirque du Soleil: How we experience awe -- and why it matters (How we experience awe -- and why it matters | Beau Lotto and

  • 36 1
    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語