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  • Most people have heard of the Electoral College during presidential election years.


  • But what exactly is the Electoral College?


  • Simply said, it is a group of people appointed by each state who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States.


  • To understand how this process began and how it continues today, we can look at the Constitution of the United States: article two, section one, clause two of the constitution.

    このプロセスがどのようにして始まったのか、そして現在も続いているのかを理解するために、私たちはアメリカ合衆国憲法の第 2 条第 1 項第 2 項を見ることができます。

  • It specifies how many electors each state is entitled to have.


  • Since 1964, there have been 538 electors in each presidential election.

    1964 年以降、各大統領選挙では 538 人の選挙人がいます。

  • How did they decide on the number 538?

    538 番はどうやって決めたんだろう?

  • Well, the number of electors is equal to the total voting membership of the United States Congress.


  • 435 representatives, plus 100 senators, and 3 electors from the District of Columbia.

    435 人の下院議員と 100 人の上院議員、そしてコロンビア特別区の 3 人の選挙人。

  • Essentially, the Democratic candidate and Republican candidate are each trying to add up the electors in every state so that they surpass 270 electoral votes, or just over half the 538 votes, and win the presidency.

    本質的には、民主党候補と共和党候補は、270 票を上回る 270 票( 538 票の半分強)の選挙人票を獲得し、大統領に勝利するために、各州の選挙人を集計しようとしているのです。

  • So how do states even get electoral votes?


  • Each state receives a particular number of electors based on population size.


  • The census is conducted every 10 years, so every time the census happens, states might gain or lose a few electoral votes.

    国勢調査は 10 年ごとに行われているので、国勢調査が行われるたびに、各州が少数の選挙人票を得たり失ったりする可能性があります。

  • Let's say you're a voter in California, a state with 55 electoral votes.

    選挙人票が 55 票もあるカリフォルニア州の有権者だとしよう。

  • If your candidate wins in California, they get all 55 of the state's electoral votes.

    カリフォルニア州で候補者が勝てば、州の選挙人投票の 55 票をすべて獲得できる。

  • If your candidate loses, they get none.


  • This is why many presidential candidates want to win states like Texas, Florida, and New York.


  • If you currently add up the electoral votes of those three states, you would have 96 electoral votes.

    現在、その 3 州の選挙人票を合計すると、96 票の選挙人票があることになります。

  • Even if a candidate won North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut and West Virginia, they would only gain 31 electoral votes total from those eight states.

    仮に候補者がノースダコタ、サウスダコタ、モンタナ、ワイオミング、バーモント、ニューハンプシャー、コネチカット、ウェストバージニアを制したとしても、これら 8 州の選挙人票を合計して31票しか得られない。

  • Here is where it can get a little tricky.


  • On a rare occasion, like in the year 2000, someone can win the popular vote but fail to gain 270 electoral votes.

    2000 年のように、まれに誰かが人気投票に勝っても、選挙で 270 票を獲得できないことがあります。

  • This means that the winner may have won and collected their electoral votes by small margins, winning just enough states with just enough electoral votes, but the losing candidate may have captured large voter margins in the remaining states.


  • If this is the case, the very large margins secured by the losing candidate in the other states would add up to over 50% of the ballots cast nationally.

    もしそうだとすれば、他の州で負けた候補者が確保した非常に大きなマージンは、全国の投票数の 50 % 以上を占めることになる。

  • Therefore, the losing candidate may have gained more than 50% of the ballots cast by voters, but failed to gain 270 of the electoral votes.

    したがって、負けた候補者は、有権者が投票した投票数の 50 %以上を獲得した可能性があるが、選挙人の投票数の 270 票を獲得することはできなかった。

  • Some critics of the electoral college argue the system gives an unfair advantage to states with large numbers of electoral votes.


  • Think of it this way.


  • It is possible for a candidate to not get a single person's vote -- not one vote --in 39 states, or the District of Columbia, yet be elected president by winning the popular vote in just 11 of these 12 states: California, New York, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Georgia or Virginia.

    39 の州やコロンビア特別区では一人の候補者も一票も得られず、12 の州のうち 11 の州で人気投票を獲得して大統領になることも可能です。カリフォルニア州、ニューヨーク州、テキサス州、フロリダ州、ペンシルバニア州、イリノイ州、オハイオ州、ミシガン州、ニュージャージー州、ノースカロライナ州、ジョージア州、バージニア州です。

  • This is why both parties pay attention to these states.


  • However, others argue that the electoral college protects small states such as Rhode Island, Vermont and New Hampshire, and even geographically large states with small populations like Alaska, Wyoming and the Dakotas.


  • That's because a candidate can't completely ignore small states, because in a close election, every electoral vote counts.


  • There are certain states that have a long history of voting for a particular party.


  • These are known as "Safe States."

    これらは "安全な状態 "として知られています。

  • For the past four election cycles -- in 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008 --

    過去4回の選挙では、1996 年、2000 年、2004 年、2008 年と

  • Democrats could count on states like Oregon, Maryland, Michigan and Massachusetts, whereas the Republicans could count on states like Mississippi, Alabama, Kansas and Idaho.


  • States that are teetering between parties are called "Swing States."

    政党間にある州は "Swing States "と呼ばれています。

  • In the past four election cycles, Ohio and Florida have been Swing States, twice providing electoral votes for a Democratic candidate, and twice providing electoral votes for a Republican candidate.

    過去4回の選挙では、オハイオとフロリダがスイングステートとなっており、民主党候補に 2 回、共和党候補に 2 回の選挙票を提供しています。

  • Think about it. Do you live in a Safe State?


  • If so, is it a Democratic or Republican Safe State?


  • Do you live in a Swing State?


  • Are your neighboring states swing or safe?


  • Is the population in your state increasing or decreasing?


  • And do not forget, when you are watching the electoral returns on election night every four years and the big map of the United States is on the screen, know that the magic number is 270 and start adding.

    そして忘れてはいけないのは、4 年に一度の選挙の夜に選挙人のリターンを見ていて、アメリカの大きな地図が画面に表示されたときに、魔法の数字が 270 であることを知って、足し算を開始することです。

Most people have heard of the Electoral College during presidential election years.



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    wikiHuang に公開 2015 年 03 月 16 日