字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Hi this is Tutor Nick P and this is Lesson 368. The title of today's, of today's lesson is the incorrect uses of until now. A lot of students, especially students of ESL will often overuse the phrase "until now. " And they'll use it in a lot of ways that they should be using other words. All right. So let's take a look at the note here. We use the phrase until now to refer to a change in a situation in which the change did not happen until the present moment. So that's how we do use until now. All right. Let's start looking at some of the ways they use it incorrectly. All right. Here's the first note. When the speaker wants to express the idea that a situation is going to continue into the future , one should use the phrase "so far" Or in a more formal sense we say "to date." Now this is where it's going to continue. When we when we do use "until now" a change has already happened. So it's not going to continue. All right. So let's ... let's, let's look at the note here. Well let's look at the first example. With the X this is wrong. Until now, the donations have added up to fifty thousand dollars or fifty thousand US dollars. What you should be using is here with the check. You should be saying "so far' because this is going to continue into the future. Maybe this number is going to go a lot higher. So you should be saying, so far the donations have added up to fifty thousand dollars. That's what you should be using here. We have another example here. He has only been a policeman for six months until now. No. This is definitely wrong. This one actually sounds pretty awkward. You should be saying. He has only been a policeman for six months so far. Again he's going to be continuing to be a policeman into the future much longer probably. Okay. And here's one that we use in the more formal sense. Until now the president has not dealt with that campaign promise. Okay. So here and you could use so far but to date would probably be a little better because it's more formal. To date the president has not dealt with that campaign promise. We should not be using until now here. Okay. Let's look at the next one, where the next sort of situation where students misuse until now. When the speaker wants to emphasize that the situation is the same as it has been in the past use "still" not until now. Remember, so when we're using until now usually means something, something just changed at this moment. Here nothing's really changed. What we're saying is that it's the same as it was in the past. So you shouldn't be using until now in this situation. Let's look at the first example. I know he was talking about quitting that job but he is in the same position until now. Okay. What you should be saying here... this one, with the check. This would be correct. I know he was thinking about quitting that job , but he is still in the same position. So you should be using "still." You shouldn't be using until now. Okay. Let's look at the next one here with the X. The debt crisis in 2008 has not been fixed. You know, meaning a lot of people do say that even though the media sometimes said it was fixed a long time ago. It just still continues. It's, it's still going on. It continues to be serious. Until now. No. Again the beginning of the sentence would be the same the debt crisis in 2008 has not been fixed. But you should be saying, it still continues to be serious. We don't use until now here. Okay. Let's look at the next area. So this is this is the third sort of situation where students misuse until now. When you want to express up to the present moment that something has not happened yet. Now remember with until now. I mean we're trying to say that something actually did happen. But it just happened at that moment or very, very recently. So in this sort of situation , you should be using "yet. " Not until now. All right. So let's look at the one example we have here. I applied to that College three months ago , but I have not gotten a response until now. Okay. So what you should be saying is I applied to that College three months ago but I have not gotten a response yet. Actually by using until now here You'd be confusing a native speaker. He would think it means. Oh , so you did get a response because you were saying I didn't get a response until now. Oh that sounds like you've just got one. No. The students should be saying I didn't get a response yet. Because she hasn't actually received one yet. All right. And we just have an example down here where we do who use until now correctly. So it's an a/b part A says I thought you said MRS. Smith was not in the office. Okay. And then B says she did not arrive until now. She just walked in the door. Which means this just happened. She just came like a minute or two minutes ago or three minutes. She didn't arrive until now. So I wasn't wrong before when I told you she wasn't in the office because she didn't arrive until now. She just arrived maybe a few minutes ago. Anyway, I hope you got it . I hope it's clear.Thank you for your time. I hope you found this to be useful. Bye-bye.