字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント [♪♪] -[Chef] Everything looks good. -[David] We're in for a treat. A taste test from an award-winning chef. Robert, this looks so good. Anything added to it? Or it's just-- This is as basic as it's gonna come. Please dig in. -[David] Okay, I'm gonna go for it. On tonight's menu, shrimp. No sauce, no strong spices. Chef Robert Clark says his shrimp don't need anything. They're different. So, what's your secret? How do you get shrimp to be so much better than I'm used to? The secret of my success is basically sourcing quality. The more you can maintain the integrity of the product, the easier it is. -[David] Chef Clark believes it's tough to buy quality shrimp at the supermarket. I have not eaten a farm tiger prawn imported into Canada in probably 20 years. They could be filled with pesticides, antibiotics, insecticides. They're grown in cesspools. -[David] Cesspools filled with antibiotics? [♪♪] Time for a Marketplace test to find out what's really lurking on our shrimp. Fishmonger. -[David] And here's what you might not know. Unlike chicken and beef, in Canada antibiotic use is banned on all shrimp. This one is from India. -[David] But most of our shrimp is imported largely from Asia. So, I've got some from Vietnam, some from Thailand, some from China. -[David] So we buy 51 packages from Montreal, Toronto, Saskatoon, and Calgary. Let's get an organic one. -[David] We even pick a few organic samples from Ecuador and from Vietnam. On one of the labels, "raised without the need "for antibiotics." "Uncooked pacific white shrimp, de-veined." "From India, de-veined." -[David] Then we pack them on ice... And we are good to go. -[David] ..and ship them off to a special lab at the University of Saskatchewan. [♪♪] It's run by microbiologist Joseph Rubin. He's testing to see if there are dangerous bacteria on our shrimp. Joe, hi. What have you got here? I have some of the results from your shrimp. -[David] These are our shrimp here or, at least, bits of them? Yes, yes. The organisms we grew. And what are you looking for? What we're looking for are different types of antibiotic resistant bacteria and different types of food-borne pathogens. -[David] Pathogens like E. coli, salmonella, staphylococcus aureus. Potentially harmful bacteria that can adapt into superbugs that many antibiotics cannot kill. What's this one here? -[Joseph] What you can see is we have these nice pink colonies. Which is very characteristic of E. coli. In addition to showing us that we have E. coli, also contains antibiotics in it and so we think that based on growth on this plate, we have an antibiotic resistant bacteria. -[David] First result and it's positive for E.coli but Rubin still needs to run a DNA test overnight to see if the bacteria is antibiotic resistant. The possibility is a big concern. He tells us about recent research from the UK. They did a large study, and were projecting forward to 2050, that the number of people who would be dying of resistant organisms could potentially even surpass cancer. -[David] They're already killing people. The superbugs can travel from farm, to store, to your kitchen. -[Wendy] I don't know where my place is in this world anymore. -[David] But especially in hospitals. -[Wendy] That's my husband. -[David] It looks like you had the camera ready at the exact moment. -[Wendy] His beautiful eyes. -[David] Two years ago, Wendy Gould's husband George was diagnosed with colon cancer. -[David] Did you think he was going to live at that point? If I had anything to do with it, yes. -[David] You were going to try to keep him alive as long as you could. Everything in my power. -[David] But Wendy ran into a problem that left her powerless. George developed a serious infection. They had him on antibiotics trying to kill this infection. Yeah. -[David] Why weren't they working? Well, it would clear up, but it's still in there. It didn't kill it, it cleared up the infection. But the bug's still waiting. -[David] What was the nature of this bug that meant the antibiotics weren't working on it? Well, it was a superbug. [♪♪] -[David] They found out in a letter from the hospital telling them about a contaminated endoscope that was used on George. "We're writing to inform you that you are one of three patients who have been identified as having been infected with the bacterium that is called, New Delhi Metalo Eso--" I don't know how to say that-- -[David] But the E.coli. Yup, E.coli. -[David] How does a New Delhi strain of a bug end up inside George? From the endoscope. -[David] Doctors tried to kill that bug using half a dozen different antibiotics, some so powerful, Wendy says George was violently hallucinating. -[Wendy] This is July 28th, 2016 so it was about a week after his surgery. -[David] He was hospitalized 23 times in just over a year. George became too weak to continue cancer treatment, too sick from the bacteria to eat. And there he is January, 2018. And that was-- he passed away January 25th. This is what the bug did to him. Then everything fell apart. -[David] Do you think he could've survived? -[Wendy] Yeah. Maybe he wouldn't have been here you know-- for years and years but it certainly would've been longer than two years and he wouldn't have had to suffer. -[David] What is the thing that's important for people to know? You could have all the best doctors in the world taking care of you with whatever it is is the matter with you but if you get one of these infections, that's it. [♪♪] I'm terrified by this stuff. Multi-drug resistance is probably the biggest threat that we have to modern medicine in the 21st century. -[David] Biochemist Gerry Wright is the director of McMaster University's Institute for Infectious Disease Research. So, this is your lab? -[Gerry] This is where most of my students and staff work. What we're trying to do is find new antibiotics and learn more about antibiotic resistance. Every time you have a knee replacement, any kind of surgery, cancer chemotherapy, you have anyone in your extended family that's had a premature baby, they all rely on antibiotics because their immune systems are weak. -[David] And what happens if we can't use them, if we've sort of run out of antibiotics because everything's resistant? All of what we consider to be modern medicine becomes incredibly risky. -[David] One contributor to the crisis, overuse of the drugs in our food at home and abroad. And when it comes to shrimp farmed overseas, they are often crammed into disease-prone pools. As a result, antibiotics are sometimes added to keep the shrimp alive, contaminating our food. Canada is passing laws that say no antibiotics in much of our food, just banning it. Doesn't that help? Our supermarkets are full of food that come not just from Canada but come from all around the world and the challenge that we have to deal with now is that those countries don't have the same regulations that we do. -[David] That sounds a bit like a backdoor. That's correct. That's the challenge that we have. -[David] That backdoor means that whatever Canada says about banning antibiotics in shrimp, superbugs are still getting into the country. Once these organisms are here, once these genes are in Canada, then there's no good way to keep them from spreading around. So, what would be a really good idea is to prevent them from getting in, in the first place. -[David] Yeah. -[David] Cross-country shrimp shopping spree. [♪♪] Our mission testing for superbugs on shrimp. 51 packages, shipped to Joe Rubin's lab. The first results show a troubling bacteria. Now we want to know if it's also antibiotic resistant. So, this is the final confirmation? This is the final confirmation. So, what we're going to see here is whether or not we've been able to identify the actual resistance genes. And here you can see... there's our bands. There's proof positive these are ESBL producing strains. And what an ESBL is, is an enzyme the bacteria produce that allows them to break down antibiotics. -[David] The ESBL is almost like an antibiotic killer? That's not a bad way of thinking about it, yeah. It's a bacterial countermeasure. -[David] Overall, Rubin finds 17 per cent, nearly 2 out of every 10 packages of the shrimp we test are contaminated with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Of those, most are resistant to more than one antibiotic. And of them, 33 per cent test positive for ESBL, the antibiotic killer. ESBLs are really effective at degrading penicillin-type drugs. -[David] So what about the organic samples? Turns out Rubin finds an ESBL superbug on one of those brands, too. We also had shrimp samples that had this label on them "best aquaculture practices." Did any of those turn up positive for antibiotic resistance? Yeah, so of the nine samples that we tested where we identified resistant bacteria, six of those were from products that had that indication of certification on them. -[David] BAP says to be certified, farmers should only use antibiotics minimally. As a shopper, we asked Rubin what he thinks certified means. A product that has maybe higher quality than other products. Now, whether that's true or not and, and what the particular certification is actually aiming to certify is maybe an open-ended question. -[Female Narrator] We are the one-stop shop for aquaculture certification. -[David] We share our findings with BAP. They agree that antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem but emphasize their shrimp isn't "unsafe". Still, their certification doesn't guarantee it wasn't treated with antibiotics. Many unanswered questions, including why one country has more positives for resistant bacteria than any other. Of the nine contaminated samples China accounts for two, Vietnam and Thailand, one each, and India, five. Does it prompt questions for you that five of the nine contaminated samples came from India? Absolutely. Yep, I would be really interested to know, sort of, where there may have been breakdowns in the production cycle that would have allowed this contamination to occur. -[David] Most shrimp in Canadian supermarkets come from India- 15 million kilograms a year. India also uses more antibiotics than any other country, doubling their use in less than 20 years. How did these bacteria that we found in the shrimp become resistant to antibiotics? There's always a low level of resistance but the kinds of resistance that you-- that were detected, is really connected in a very straight line towards-- with antibiotic use.